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Open AccessArticle

Detection and Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Pinnatoxins in Shellfish from the Atlantic and Cantabrian Coasts of Spain

Intecmar (Instituto Tecnolóxico para o Control do Medio Mariño de Galicia), Peirao de Vilaxoán s/n, Vilagarcía de Arousa, 36611 Pontevedra, Spain
Centro de Investigacións Mariñas (CIMA), Pedras de Corón s/n, 36620 Vilanova de Arousa, Spain
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 340;
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dinoflagellate Toxins)
For the first time, pinnatoxins have been detected in shellfish from the Atlantic and Cantabrian coasts of Spain. High sensitivity LC-MS/MS systems were used to monitor all the currently known pinnatoxins (A–H). Pinnatoxin G (PnTX G) was the most prevalent toxin of the group, but its metabolite PnTX A has also been found at much lower levels. No trend in PnTX G concentration was found in the area, but a hotspot in the Ría de Camariñas has been identified. The maximum concentrations found did not exceed 15 µg·kg−1, being, in most cases, below 3 µg·kg−1. The highest concentrations were found in wild (intertidal) populations of mussels which attained much higher levels than raft-cultured ones, suggesting that the toxin-producer organisms preferentially develop in shallow areas. Other bivalve species had, in general, lower concentrations. The incidence of PnTX G followed a seasonal pattern in which the maximum concentrations took place in winter months. PnTX G was found to be partially esterified but the esterification percentage was not high (lower than 30%). View Full-Text
Keywords: pinnatoxins; shellfish; Spain; Atlantic; Cantabrian pinnatoxins; shellfish; Spain; Atlantic; Cantabrian
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lamas, J.P.; Arévalo, F.; Moroño, Á.; Correa, J.; Muñíz, S.; Blanco, J. Detection and Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Pinnatoxins in Shellfish from the Atlantic and Cantabrian Coasts of Spain. Toxins 2019, 11, 340.

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