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The Role of Streptococcal and Staphylococcal Exotoxins and Proteases in Human Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections

1
Center for Functional Genomics of Microbes, Department of Molecular Genetics and Infection Biology, University of Greifswald, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany
2
Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11060332
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
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PDF [1731 KB, uploaded 11 June 2019]
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Abstract

Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are critical clinical conditions characterized by extensive necrosis of any layer of the soft tissue and systemic toxicity. Group A streptococci (GAS) and Staphylococcus aureus are two major pathogens associated with monomicrobial NSTIs. In the tissue environment, both Gram-positive bacteria secrete a variety of molecules, including pore-forming exotoxins, superantigens, and proteases with cytolytic and immunomodulatory functions. The present review summarizes the current knowledge about streptococcal and staphylococcal toxins in NSTIs with a special focus on their contribution to disease progression, tissue pathology, and immune evasion strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: Streptococcus pyogenes; group A streptococcus; Staphylococcus aureus; skin infections; necrotizing soft tissue infections; pore-forming toxins; superantigens; immunomodulatory proteases; immune responses Streptococcus pyogenes; group A streptococcus; Staphylococcus aureus; skin infections; necrotizing soft tissue infections; pore-forming toxins; superantigens; immunomodulatory proteases; immune responses
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Shumba, P.; Mairpady Shambat, S.; Siemens, N. The Role of Streptococcal and Staphylococcal Exotoxins and Proteases in Human Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections. Toxins 2019, 11, 332.

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