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Open AccessReview

The Role of Streptococcal and Staphylococcal Exotoxins and Proteases in Human Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections

1
Center for Functional Genomics of Microbes, Department of Molecular Genetics and Infection Biology, University of Greifswald, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany
2
Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11060332
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are critical clinical conditions characterized by extensive necrosis of any layer of the soft tissue and systemic toxicity. Group A streptococci (GAS) and Staphylococcus aureus are two major pathogens associated with monomicrobial NSTIs. In the tissue environment, both Gram-positive bacteria secrete a variety of molecules, including pore-forming exotoxins, superantigens, and proteases with cytolytic and immunomodulatory functions. The present review summarizes the current knowledge about streptococcal and staphylococcal toxins in NSTIs with a special focus on their contribution to disease progression, tissue pathology, and immune evasion strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: Streptococcus pyogenes; group A streptococcus; Staphylococcus aureus; skin infections; necrotizing soft tissue infections; pore-forming toxins; superantigens; immunomodulatory proteases; immune responses Streptococcus pyogenes; group A streptococcus; Staphylococcus aureus; skin infections; necrotizing soft tissue infections; pore-forming toxins; superantigens; immunomodulatory proteases; immune responses
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Shumba, P.; Mairpady Shambat, S.; Siemens, N. The Role of Streptococcal and Staphylococcal Exotoxins and Proteases in Human Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections. Toxins 2019, 11, 332.

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