Next Article in Journal
Fengycin Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 Inhibits Fusarium graminearum Growth and Mycotoxins Biosynthesis
Previous Article in Journal
Discovery of a Potential Human Serum Biomarker for Chronic Seafood Toxin Exposure Using an SPR Biosensor
Open AccessArticle

Evidence for Snake Venom Plasticity in a Long-Term Study with Individual Captive Bothrops atrox

1
Laboratório de Imunopatologia, Instituto Butantan, 05503-900 São Paulo, Brazil
2
Laboratório de Ecologia Isotópica, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura—USP, 13416-000 Piracicaba, Brazil
3
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Naturais da Amazônia, Laboratório de Bioprospecção e Biologia Experimental, Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará—UFOPA, 68040-070 Santarém, PA, Brazil
4
Laboratório de Pesquisas Zoológicas, Unama Centro Universitário da Amazônia, 68010-200 Santarém, PA, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(5), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11050294
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
Variability in snake venom composition has been frequently reported and correlated to the adaptability of snakes to environmental conditions. Previous studies report plasticity for the venom phenotype. However, these observations are not conclusive, as the results were based on pooled venoms, which present high individual variability. Here we tested the hypothesis of plasticity by influence of confinement and single diet type in the venom composition of 13 adult specimens of Bothrops atrox snakes, maintained under captivity for more than three years. Individual variability in venom composition was observed in samples extracted just after the capture of the snakes. However, composition was conserved in venoms periodically extracted from nine specimens, which presented low variability restricted to the less abundant components. In a second group, composed of four snakes, drastic changes were observed in the venom samples extracted at different periods, mostly related to snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs), the core function toxins of B. atrox venom, which occurred approximately between 400 and 500 days in captivity. These data show plasticity in the venom phenotype during the lifetime of adult snakes maintained under captive conditions. Causes or functional consequences involved in the phenotype modification require further investigations. View Full-Text
Keywords: venom variability; metalloproteinases; enzyme toxins venom variability; metalloproteinases; enzyme toxins
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Amazonas, D.R.; Freitas-de-Sousa, L.A.; Orefice, D.P.; Sousa, L.F.; Martinez, M.G.; Mourão, R.H.V.; Chalkidis, H.M.; Camargo, P.B.; Moura-da-Silva, A.M. Evidence for Snake Venom Plasticity in a Long-Term Study with Individual Captive Bothrops atrox. Toxins 2019, 11, 294.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop