Next Article in Journal
Toxin–Antitoxin Systems in Bacillus subtilis
Next Article in Special Issue
Insecticidal Activity of a Vip3Ab1 Chimera Is Conferred by Improved Protein Stability in the Midgut of Spodoptera eridania
Previous Article in Journal
Recombinant Aflatoxin-Degrading F420H2-Dependent Reductase from Mycobacterium smegmatis Protects Mammalian Cells from Aflatoxin Toxicity
Previous Article in Special Issue
Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis-Derived Pesticidal Proteins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ba against Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera)
Open AccessArticle

Interactive Effects of [CO2] and Temperature on Plant Chemistry of Transgenic Bt Rice and Population Dynamics of a Non-Target Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) under Different Levels of Soil Nitrogen

1
Department of Entomology, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
2
Zhengzhou Customs, Zhengzhou 410003, China
3
Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center, Lubbock, TX 79403, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(5), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11050261
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 1 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 8 May 2019
Gaining a better understanding of the interactive effect of projected atmospheric CO2 level increase and the Earth’s rising temperature on plant chemistry (nutritional and defensive characteristics) of transgenic crops is essential when attempting to forecast the responses of target and non-target insects to climate change. In this study, effects of carbon dioxide (CO2; elevated versus ambient), temperature (T; high versus low), and their interactions on leaf nitrogen content (N%) and C:N ratio of transgenic Bt rice and its non-Bt isoline grown under low- and high-N fertilizer were systematically analyzed together with the resulting insect population dynamics of a non-target planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stâl) in open-top-chamber experiments. The results indicated that under low-N treatment, elevated CO2 at low T (i.e., eCO2) (compared to ambient CO2 at low T, i.e., CK) significantly decreased N% and Bt-toxin content and significantly increased C:N ratio in leaf sheath and leaf of Bt rice, especially during the tillering stage, whereas inverse effects of high T were shown on the plant chemistry of Bt rice, especially during heading stage. The combination of elevated CO2 and high T (i.e., Combined) (in contrast to CK) significantly increased N% and decreased C:N ratio in leaf sheath of Bt rice during the heading stage under low-N fertilizer, while significantly decreased N% and increased C:N ratio in leaf of Bt rice during the tillering stage, regardless of fertilizer-N level, and significantly increased Bt-toxin content in leaf sheath and leaf during the tillering stage under both low- and high-N. Moreover, no discernable relationships between Bt-toxin content and N% or leaf C:N ratio were observed at any CO2 or N levels evaluated. Furthermore, transgenic treatment, temperature and fertilizer-N level interactions, and CO2 and fertilizer-N level interactions all significantly affected the population dynamics of N. lugens. Specifically, high-N significantly enhanced the population dynamics of N. lugens fed on non-Bt rice grown under eTemp and Bt cultivar significantly reduced the population dynamics of N. lugens under eCO2 regardless of N fertilizer levels. The study demonstrates that the planting of transgenic Bt rice would not increase the risk of increased N. lugens severity under the combined condition of elevated CO2 and increased temperature, particularly under moderate level of N fertility. View Full-Text
Keywords: elevated CO2; high temperature; fertilizer-N level; transgenic Bt rice; plant chemistry; rice planthopper; population dynamics elevated CO2; high temperature; fertilizer-N level; transgenic Bt rice; plant chemistry; rice planthopper; population dynamics
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Y.; Dang, Z.; Wang, Y.; Parajulee, M.N.; Chen, F. Interactive Effects of [CO2] and Temperature on Plant Chemistry of Transgenic Bt Rice and Population Dynamics of a Non-Target Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) under Different Levels of Soil Nitrogen. Toxins 2019, 11, 261.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop