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Toxins 2019, 11(3), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11030157

Proanthocyanidins Alleviates AflatoxinB1-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis through Mitochondrial Pathway in the Bursa of Fabricius of Broilers

1
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
2
Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University, 13736 Banha, Egypt
3
Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Science, Department of Biotechnology, Lasbela Univesity of Agriculture Water and Marine Science, 89250 Uthal, Balochistan, Pakistan
4
College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
5
Department of Poultry Husbandry, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science, Sindh Agriculture University, 70060 Tandojam, Pakistan
6
Research Center of Animal Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
7
State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 February 2019 / Revised: 3 March 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 10 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins, Immunity, and Inflammation)
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Abstract

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a serious threat to the poultry industry. Proanthocyanidins (PCs) demonstrates a broad range of biological, pharmacological, therapeutic, and chemoprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effects of PCs against AFB1-induced histopathology, oxidative stress, and apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway in the bursa of Fabricius (BF) of broilers. One hundred forty-four one-day old Cobb chicks were randomly assigned into four treatment groups of six replicates (6 birds each replicate) for 28 days. Groups were fed on the following four diets; (1) Basal diet without addition of PCs or AFB1 (Control); (2) basal diet supplemented with 1 mg/kg AFB1 from contaminated corn (AFB1); (3) basal diet supplemented with 250 mg/kg PCs (PCs); and (4) basal diet supplemented with 1 mg/kg AFB1 + 250 mg/kg PCs (AFB1+ PCs). The present study results showed that antioxidant enzymes activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in AFB1 treated group were (p < 0.05) decreased, whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were significantly increased in comparison with the control group. Furthermore, we found that dietary PCs treatment ameliorated AFB1-induced oxidative stress in the BF through inhibiting the accumulation of MDA content and enhancing the antioxidant enzymes activities (T-SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, and GST). Similarly, PCs markedly enhanced messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of antioxidant genes (SOD, CAT, GPx1, and GST) in comparison with AFB1 group. Moreover, histological results showed that PCs alleviated AFB1-induced apoptotic cells in the BF of broilers. In addition, both mRNA and protein expression results manifested that mitochondrial-apoptosis-associated genes (Bax, caspase-9, caspase-3, and p53 and cytochrome c) showed up-regulation, while (Bcl-2) showed down-regulation in AFB1 fed group. The supplementation of PCs to AFB1 diet significantly reversed the mRNA and protein expression of these apoptosis-associated genes, as compared to the AFB1 group. Our results demonstrated that PCs ameliorated AFB1-induced oxidative stress by modulating the antioxidant defense system and apoptosis in the BF through mitochondrial pathway in broilers. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxin B1; proanthocyanidins; oxidative stress; apoptosis; bursa of Fabricius; broiler aflatoxin B1; proanthocyanidins; oxidative stress; apoptosis; bursa of Fabricius; broiler
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Rajput, S.A.; Zhang, C.; Feng, Y.; Wei, X.T.; Khalil, M.M.; Rajput, I.R.; Baloch, D.M.; Shaukat, A.; Rajput, N.; Qamar, H.; Hassan, M.; Qi, D. Proanthocyanidins Alleviates AflatoxinB1-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis through Mitochondrial Pathway in the Bursa of Fabricius of Broilers. Toxins 2019, 11, 157.

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