Next Article in Journal
Mycotoxins and Related Fungi in Italian Paddy Rice During the Growing Season and Storage
Next Article in Special Issue
Harmful Effects and Control Strategies of Aflatoxin B1 Produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus Strains on Poultry: Review
Previous Article in Journal
Preclinical Assessment of a New Polyvalent Antivenom (Inoserp Europe) against Several Species of the Subfamily Viperinae
Previous Article in Special Issue
Metal Ions in Activated Carbon Improve the Detection Efficiency of Aflatoxin-Producing Fungi
Article

Occurrence and Exposure Assessment of Aflatoxins and Deoxynivalenol in Cereal-Based Baby Foods for Infants

1
Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón—IA2 (Universidad de Zaragoza-CITA), Facultad de Veterinaria, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain
2
Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón (CITA), 50059 Zaragoza, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(3), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11030150
Received: 2 February 2019 / Revised: 24 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Infestations in Humans, Animals, Crops)
Aflatoxins are carcinogenic to humans and deoxynivalenol causes digestive disorders, and both mycotoxins occur frequently in cereal-based foods. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence and levels of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) and deoxynivalenol (DON) in cereal-based baby foods as well as to calculate the estimated daily intakes (EDI) in different stages of infancy. Sixty samples of infant cereals (wheat-, corn-, rice-, oat-, and mixed grain-based) were collected during a 2-year period and analyzed by validated methods. Aflatoxins were detected in 12 samples (20%), six of which exceeded the EU maximum level for aflatoxin B1 set at 0.10 µg/kg. Deoxynivalenol appeared in 20% of baby food samples, with one sample exceeding the EU maximum level established at 200 µg/kg. There were no significant differences between gluten-free products for babies aged 4–6 months and multi-cereal products for infants aged 7–12 months, nor between whole-grain-based and refined ingredients. However, baby food products of organic origin showed significantly higher levels of deoxynivalenol than conventional ones (p < 0.05). It is proposed for the health protection of infants and young children, a vulnerable group, to establish the lowest maximum level for the sum of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) in baby food. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; aflatoxins; deoxynivalenol; infant cereals; baby food; maximum levels mycotoxins; aflatoxins; deoxynivalenol; infant cereals; baby food; maximum levels
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Herrera, M.; Bervis, N.; Carramiñana, J.J.; Juan, T.; Herrera, A.; Ariño, A.; Lorán, S. Occurrence and Exposure Assessment of Aflatoxins and Deoxynivalenol in Cereal-Based Baby Foods for Infants. Toxins 2019, 11, 150. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11030150

AMA Style

Herrera M, Bervis N, Carramiñana JJ, Juan T, Herrera A, Ariño A, Lorán S. Occurrence and Exposure Assessment of Aflatoxins and Deoxynivalenol in Cereal-Based Baby Foods for Infants. Toxins. 2019; 11(3):150. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11030150

Chicago/Turabian Style

Herrera, Marta, Noemi Bervis, Juan José Carramiñana, Teresa Juan, Antonio Herrera, Agustín Ariño, and Susana Lorán. 2019. "Occurrence and Exposure Assessment of Aflatoxins and Deoxynivalenol in Cereal-Based Baby Foods for Infants" Toxins 11, no. 3: 150. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11030150

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop