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Open AccessArticle

The Diversified O-Superfamily in Californiconus californicus Presents a Conotoxin with Antimycobacterial Activity

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Departamento de Innovación Biomédica, CICESE, Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana 3918, Ensenada, BC C.P. 22860, Mexico
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Departamento de Ciencias Computacionales, CICESE, Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana 3918, Ensenada, BC C.P. 22860, Mexico
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Departamento de Medicina Molecular y Bioprocesos, IBT, UNAM, Cuernavaca, Morelos, C.P. 62210, Mexico
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Teraclon IDF, S.L., Parque Tecnológico de Madrid, Tres Cantos, Madrid, C.P. 28760, Espana
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Laboratorio Silanes, S.A. de C.V., Ciudad de México, C.P. 11000, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(2), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020128
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
Californiconus californicus, previously named Conus californicus, has always been considered a unique species within cone snails, because of its molecular, toxicological and morphological singularities; including the wide range of its diet, since it is capable of preying indifferently on fish, snails, octopus, shrimps, and worms. We report here a new cysteine pattern conotoxin assigned to the O1-superfamily capable of inhibiting the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The conotoxin was tested on a pathogen reference strain (H37Rv) and multidrug-resistant strains, having an inhibition effect on growth with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 3.52–0.22 μM, similar concentrations to drugs used in clinics. The peptide was purified from the venom using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), a partial sequence was constructed by Edman degradation, completed by RACE and confirmed with venom gland transcriptome. The 32-mer peptide containing eight cysteine residues was named O1_cal29b, according to the current nomenclature for this type of molecule. Moreover, transcriptomic analysis of O-superfamily toxins present in the venom gland of the snail allowed us to assign several signal peptides to O2 and O3 superfamilies not described before in C. californicus, with new conotoxins frameworks. View Full-Text
Keywords: Conus californicus; Californiconus californicus; O-superfamily conotoxin; transcriptome; tuberculosis; anti-TB; antimycobacterial; multidrug-resistant tuberculosis Conus californicus; Californiconus californicus; O-superfamily conotoxin; transcriptome; tuberculosis; anti-TB; antimycobacterial; multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
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Bernáldez-Sarabia, J.; Figueroa-Montiel, A.; Dueñas, S.; Cervantes-Luévano, K.; Beltrán, J.A.; Ortiz, E.; Jiménez, S.; Possani, L.D.; Paniagua-Solís, J.F.; Gonzalez-Canudas, J.; Licea-Navarro, A. The Diversified O-Superfamily in Californiconus californicus Presents a Conotoxin with Antimycobacterial Activity. Toxins 2019, 11, 128.

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