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Lipophilic Toxins in Galicia (NW Spain) between 2014 and 2017: Incidence on the Main Molluscan Species and Analysis of the Monitoring Efficiency

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Centro de Investigacións Mariñas (CIMA), Consellería do Mar. Xunta de Galicia. Pedras de Corón s/n, 36620 Vilanova de Arousa, Spain
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Centro Tecnolóxico para o Control do Medio Mariño de Galicia (INTECMAR), Consellería do Mar. Xunta de Galicia. Peirao de Vilaxoán s/n, 36611 Vilagarcía de Arousa, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(10), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11100612
Received: 6 September 2019 / Revised: 20 October 2019 / Accepted: 21 October 2019 / Published: 22 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
Galicia is an area with a strong mussel aquaculture industry in addition to other important bivalve mollusc fisheries. Between 2014 and 2017, 18,862 samples were analyzed for EU regulated marine lipophilic toxins. Okadaic acid (OA) was the most prevalent toxin and the only single toxin that produced harvesting closures. Toxin concentrations in raft mussels were generally higher than those recorded in other bivalves, justifying the use of this species as an indicator. The Rías of Pontevedra and Muros were the ones most affected by OA and DTX2 and the Ría of Ares by YTXs. In general, the outer areas of the Rías were more affected by OA and DTX2 than the inner ones. The OA level reached a maximum in spring, while DTX2 was almost entirely restricted to the fall–winter season. YTXs peaked in August–September. The toxins of the OA group were nearly completely esterified in all the bivalves studied except mussels and queen scallops. Risk of intoxication with the current monitoring system is low. In less than 2% of cases did the first detection of OA in an area exceed the regulatory limit. In no case, could any effect on humans be expected. The apparent intoxication and depuration rates were similar and directly related, suggesting that the rates are regulated mainly by oceanographic characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: lipophilic toxins; bivalves; Galicia; spatial variability; temporal variability; biotransformation; monitoring; risk lipophilic toxins; bivalves; Galicia; spatial variability; temporal variability; biotransformation; monitoring; risk
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Blanco, J.; Arévalo, F.; Correa, J.; Moroño, Á. Lipophilic Toxins in Galicia (NW Spain) between 2014 and 2017: Incidence on the Main Molluscan Species and Analysis of the Monitoring Efficiency. Toxins 2019, 11, 612.

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