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Distribution Characteristics and Environmental Control Factors of Lipophilic Marine Algal Toxins in Changjiang Estuary and the Adjacent East China Sea

1
Key Laboratory for Marine Bioactive Substances and Modern Analytical Technology, The First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao 266061, China
2
Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao 266071, China
3
Qinhuangdao Marine Environmental Monitoring Central Station, Qinhuangdao 066000, China
4
Marine College, Shandong University, Weihai 264200, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(10), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11100596
Received: 14 August 2019 / Revised: 7 October 2019 / Accepted: 10 October 2019 / Published: 12 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
Marine algal toxins, highly toxic secondary metabolites, have significant influences on coastal ecosystem health and mariculture safety. The occurrence and environmental control factors of lipophilic marine algal toxins (LMATs) in the surface seawater of the Changjiang estuary (CJE) and the adjacent East China Sea (ECS) were investigated. Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1(DTX1), and gymnodimine (GYM) were detected in the CJE surface seawater in summer, with concentration ranges of not detected (ND)–105.54 ng/L, ND–13.24 ng/L, ND–5.48 ng/L, and ND–12.95 ng/L, respectively. DTX1 (ND–316.15 ng/L), OA (ND–16.13 ng/L), and PTX2 (ND–4.97 ng/L) were detected in the ECS during spring. LMATs formed a unique low-concentration band in the Changjiang diluted water (CJDW) coverage area in the typical large river estuary. PTX2, OA, and DTX1 in seawater were mainly derived from Dinophysis caudate and Dinophysis rotundata, while GYM was suspected to be from Karenia selliformis. Correlation analyses showed that LMAT levels in seawater were positively correlated with dissolved oxygen and salinity, but negatively correlated with temperature and nutrients, indicating that the hydrological condition and nutritional status of seawater and climatic factors exert significant effects on the distribution of LMATs.
Keywords: marine algae toxins; large river estuary; Changjiang estuary; East China Sea; seawater; phytoplankton marine algae toxins; large river estuary; Changjiang estuary; East China Sea; seawater; phytoplankton
MDPI and ACS Style

He, X.; Chen, J.; Wu, D.; Sun, P.; Ma, X.; Wang, J.; Liu, L.; Chen, K.; Wang, B. Distribution Characteristics and Environmental Control Factors of Lipophilic Marine Algal Toxins in Changjiang Estuary and the Adjacent East China Sea. Toxins 2019, 11, 596.

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