The study investigated the effect of grape seed (GS) meal, aflatoxin (AFB1), or their combination on the large intestine microbiota of weanling piglets. Twenty-four piglets were allocated into four groups based on diet composition: (1) Control group; (2) AFB1 (320 g/kg feed) group; (3) GS group (8% inclusion in the diet); (4) AFB1 + GS group. After 30 days of experiment, the colon content was used for microbiota analyses; after isolation of total bacterial genomic DNA, V3/V4 regions of the 16S rRNA amplicons were sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The raw sequences were analyzed using the v.1.9.1 QIIME pipeline software. 157 numbers of OTUs were identified among all four dietary groups with 26 of them being prevalent above 0.05% in the total relative abundance. GS and AFB1 increase the relative abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes
, while decreasing the Firmicutes
abundance in a synergic manner as compared with the individual treatments. An additive or synergistic action of the two treatments was identified for Lactobacillus
, while rather an antagonistic effect was observed on Lachnospira
. The action mechanisms of aflatoxin B1 and grape seed meal that drive the large intestine microbiota to these changes are not known and need further investigations.
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