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Toxins 2019, 11(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11010011

In Vitro and in Field Response of Different Fungicides against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium Species Causing Ear Rot Disease of Maize

Institute of Sciences of Food Production, Research National Council (ISPA-CNR), Via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari, Italy
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Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 1 January 2019
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Abstract

Aspergillus flavus, the main aflatoxin B1 producing fungal species, Fusarium graminearum, a deoxynivalenol producer, and the fumonisin-producing species F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides are the main toxigenic fungi (TF) that colonize maize. Several strategies are available to control TF and related mycotoxins, such as chemical control. However, there is poor knowledge on the efficacy of fungicides on maize plants since few molecules are registered. The sensitivity of F. graminearum, F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides, and A. flavus to eleven fungicides, selected based on their different modes of action, was evaluated in both in vitro assays and, after selection, in the field. In vitro, demethylation inhibitors (DMI) showed excellent performances, followed by thiophanate-methyl and folpet. Among the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHI), isopyrazam showed a higher effectiveness against Fusarium species than boscalid, which was ineffective against Fusarium, like the phenyl-pyrrole fludioxonil. Furthermore, both SDHIs and fludioxonil were more active against A. flavus than Fusarium species. In field trials, prothioconazole and thiophanate-methyl were confirmed to be effective to reduce F. graminearum (52% and 48%) and F. proliferatum contamination (44% and 27%). On the other hand, prothioconazole and boscalid could reduce A. flavus contamination at values of 75% and 56%, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: prothioconazole; boscalid; fludioxonil; SDHI-resistance; Demethylation Inhibitors; maize ear rot disease control prothioconazole; boscalid; fludioxonil; SDHI-resistance; Demethylation Inhibitors; maize ear rot disease control
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Masiello, M.; Somma, S.; Ghionna, V.; Logrieco, A.F.; Moretti, A. In Vitro and in Field Response of Different Fungicides against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium Species Causing Ear Rot Disease of Maize. Toxins 2019, 11, 11.

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