Next Article in Journal
Application of Low-Fermenting Yeast Lachancea thermotolerans for the Control of Toxigenic Fungi Aspergillus parasiticus, Penicillium verrucosum and Fusarium graminearum and Their Mycotoxins
Previous Article in Journal
Functional Assays for Measuring the Catalytic Activity of Ribosome Inactivating Proteins
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Toxins 2018, 10(6), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10060241

Toxins of Locus of Enterocyte Effacement-Negative Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

1
Department of Food Microbiology and Hygiene, Institute of Food Science and Biotechnology, Garbenstrasse 28, University of Hohenheim, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
2
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Ulm Medical Center, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Toxins)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1055 KB, uploaded 20 June 2018]   |  

Abstract

Studies on Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) typically examine and classify the virulence gene profiles based on genomic analyses. Among the screened strains, a subgroup of STEC which lacks the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) has frequently been identified. This raises the question about the level of pathogenicity of such strains. This review focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of the standard screening procedures in virulence profiling and summarizes the current knowledge concerning the function and regulation of toxins encoded by LEE-negative STEC. Although LEE-negative STEC usually come across as food isolates, which rarely cause infections in humans, some serotypes have been implicated in human diseases. In particular, the LEE-negative E. coli O104:H4 German outbreak strain from 2011 and the Australian O113:H21 strain isolated from a HUS patient attracted attention. Moreover, the LEE-negative STEC O113:H21 strain TS18/08 that was isolated from minced meat is remarkable in that it not only encodes multiple toxins, but in fact expresses three different toxins simultaneously. Their characterization contributes to understanding the virulence of the LEE-negative STEC. View Full-Text
Keywords: LEE-negative STEC; Shiga toxin; Subtilase Cytotoxin; Cytolethal distending toxin; EHEC-Hly; profiling studies; O104:H4; O113:H21; TS18/08 LEE-negative STEC; Shiga toxin; Subtilase Cytotoxin; Cytolethal distending toxin; EHEC-Hly; profiling studies; O104:H4; O113:H21; TS18/08
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Krause, M.; Barth, H.; Schmidt, H. Toxins of Locus of Enterocyte Effacement-Negative Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli. Toxins 2018, 10, 241.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top