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Transcriptomic Analysis of Pseudoscorpion Venom Reveals a Unique Cocktail Dominated by Enzymes and Protease Inhibitors

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 430 Lincoln Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Posgrado en Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad 3000, Coyoacán, Ciudad de México C.P. 04510, Mexico
Department of Terrestrial Zoology, Western Australian Museum, Locked Bag 49, Welshpool DC, Western Australia 6986, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2018, 10(5), 207;
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
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Transcriptomic and genomic analyses have illuminated the diversity of venoms in three of the four venomous arachnid orders (scorpions, spiders, and ticks). To date, no venom gland transcriptome analysis has been available for pseudoscorpions, the fourth venomous arachnid lineage. To redress this gap, we sequenced an mRNA library generated from the venom glands of the species Synsphyronus apimelus (Garypidae). High-throughput sequencing by the Illumina protocol, followed by de novo assembly, resulted in a total of 238,331 transcripts. From those, we annotated 131 transcripts, which code for putative peptides/proteins with similar sequences to previously reported venom components available from different arachnid species in protein databases. Transcripts putatively coding for enzymes showed the richest diversity, followed by other venom components such as peptidase inhibitors, cysteine-rich peptides, and thyroglobulin 1-like peptides. Only 11 transcripts were found that code for putatively low molecular mass spider toxins. This study constitutes the first report of the diversity of components within pseudoscorpion venom. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arachnida; enzymes; kunitz-type inhibitors Arachnida; enzymes; kunitz-type inhibitors

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Santibáñez-López, C.E.; Ontano, A.Z.; Harvey, M.S.; Sharma, P.P. Transcriptomic Analysis of Pseudoscorpion Venom Reveals a Unique Cocktail Dominated by Enzymes and Protease Inhibitors. Toxins 2018, 10, 207.

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