Next Article in Journal
Estrogen Receptor α Is Crucial in Zearalenone-Induced Invasion and Migration of Prostate Cancer Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Prorocentrolide-A from Cultured Prorocentrum lima Dinoflagellates Collected in Japan Blocks Sub-Types of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Toxins 2018, 10(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10030096

True Lies: Using Proteomics to Assess the Accuracy of Transcriptome-Based Venomics in Centipedes Uncovers False Positives and Reveals Startling Intraspecific Variation in Scolopendra subspinipes

1
Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia
2
Centre for Advanced Imaging, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 20 February 2018 / Accepted: 24 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
Full-Text   |   PDF [7587 KB, uploaded 9 March 2018]   |  

Abstract

Centipede venoms have emerged as a rich source of novel bioactive compounds. However, most centipede species are commonly considered too small for venom extraction and transcriptomics is likely to be an attractive way of probing the molecular diversity of these venoms. Examining the venom composition of Scolopendra subspinipes, we test the accuracy of this approach. We compared the proteomically determined venom profile with four common toxin transcriptomic toxin annotation approaches: BLAST search against toxins in UniProt, lineage-specific toxins, or species-specific toxins and comparative expression analyses of venom and non-venom producing tissues. This demonstrated that even toxin annotation based on lineage-specific homology searches is prone to substantial errors compared to a proteomic approach. However, combined comparative transcriptomics and phylogenetic analysis of putative toxin families substantially improves annotation accuracy. Furthermore, comparison of the venom composition of S. subspinipes with the closely related S. subspinipes mutilans revealed a surprising lack of overlap. This first insight into the intraspecific venom variability of centipedes contrasts the sequence conservation expected from previous findings that centipede toxins evolve under strong negative selection. Our results highlight the importance of proteomic data in studies of even comparably well-characterized venoms and warrants caution when sourcing venom from centipedes of unknown origin. View Full-Text
Keywords: centipede; Scolopendra subspinipes; venom; intraspecific variation; toxin annotation; transcriptomics; proteomics centipede; Scolopendra subspinipes; venom; intraspecific variation; toxin annotation; transcriptomics; proteomics
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Smith, J.J.; Undheim, E.A.B. True Lies: Using Proteomics to Assess the Accuracy of Transcriptome-Based Venomics in Centipedes Uncovers False Positives and Reveals Startling Intraspecific Variation in Scolopendra subspinipes. Toxins 2018, 10, 96.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top