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Toxins 2018, 10(3), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10030125

The Replacement of five Consecutive Amino Acids in the Cyt1A Protein of Bacillus thuringiensis Enhances its Cytotoxic Activity against Lung Epithelial Cancer Cells

1
Biological & Environmental Sciences Department, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713 Doha, Qatar
2
Interim Translational Research Institute, Hamad Medical Corporation, P.O. Box 3050 Doha, Qatar
3
Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, 732 HWCRC, 4100 John R., Detroit, MI 48201, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Toxins: Structure–Function Relationship)
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Abstract

Cyt1A protein is a cytolytic protein encoded by the cyt gene of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) as part of the parasporal crystal proteins produced during the sporulation. Cyt1A protein is unique compared to the other endotoxins present in these parasporal crystals. Unlike δ-endotoxins, Cyt1A protein does not require receptors to bind to the target cell and activate the toxicity. It has the ability to affect a broad range of cell types and organisms, due to this characteristic. Cyt1A has been recognized to not only target the insect cells directly, but also recruit other endotoxins by acting as receptors. Due to these mode of actions, Cyt1A has been studied for its cytolytic activity against human cancer cell lines, although not extensively. In this study, we report a novel Cyt1A protein produced by a Bti strain QBT229 isolated from Qatar. When tested for its cytotoxicity against lung cancer cells, this local strain showed considerably higher activity compared to that of the reference Bti and other strains tested. The possible reasons for such enhanced activity were explored at the gene and protein levels. It was evidenced that five consecutive amino acid replacements in the β8 sheet of the Cyt1A protein enhanced the cytotoxicity against the lung epithelial cancer cells. Such novel Cyt1A protein with high cytotoxicity against lung cancer cells has been characterized and reported through this study. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis; Novel Cyt1A; cytotoxicity; lung epithelial cancer cell line; protein modelling Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis; Novel Cyt1A; cytotoxicity; lung epithelial cancer cell line; protein modelling
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Nair, K.; Iskandarani, A.; Al-Thani, R.; Mohammad, R.; Jaoua, S. The Replacement of five Consecutive Amino Acids in the Cyt1A Protein of Bacillus thuringiensis Enhances its Cytotoxic Activity against Lung Epithelial Cancer Cells. Toxins 2018, 10, 125.

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