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Correction published on 10 May 2018, see Toxins 2018, 10(5), 191.

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Toxins 2018, 10(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10020083

Occurrence of β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) and Isomers in Aquatic Environments and Aquatic Food Sources for Humans

1
UMR SEBIO, Bat 18, Campus du Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, 51687 REIMS CEDEX 2, France
2
ANSES—French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety, Direction de l’Evaluation des Risques, 14 rue, Pierre et Marie Curie, 94701 Maisons-Alfort, France
3
Université Paris-Est, ANSES, Laboratory for Food Safety, F94701 Maisons-Alfort, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
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Abstract

The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a non-protein amino acid produced by terrestrial and aquatic cyanobacteria and by micro-algae, has been suggested to play a role as an environmental factor in the neurodegenerative disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-Parkinsonism-Dementia complex (ALS-PDC). The ubiquitous presence of BMAA in aquatic environments and organisms along the food chain potentially makes it public health concerns. However, the BMAA-associated human health risk remains difficult to rigorously assess due to analytical challenges associated with the detection and quantification of BMAA and its natural isomers, 2,4-diamino butyric acid (DAB), β-amino-N-methyl-alanine (BAMA) and N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine (AEG). This systematic review, reporting the current knowledge on the presence of BMAA and isomers in aquatic environments and human food sources, was based on a selection and a score numbering of the scientific literature according to various qualitative and quantitative criteria concerning the chemical analytical methods used. Results from the best-graded studies show that marine bivalves are to date the matrix containing the higher amount of BMAA, far more than most fish muscles, but with an exception for shark cartilage. This review discusses the available data in terms of their use for human health risk assessment and identifies knowledge gaps requiring further investigations. View Full-Text
Keywords: BMAA; seafood; freshwater foodweb; human health risk assessment; analytical methods BMAA; seafood; freshwater foodweb; human health risk assessment; analytical methods
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Lance, E.; Arnich, N.; Maignien, T.; Biré, R. Occurrence of β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) and Isomers in Aquatic Environments and Aquatic Food Sources for Humans. Toxins 2018, 10, 83.

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