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Toxins 2018, 10(2), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10020081

Natural Occurrence of Nivalenol, Deoxynivalenol, and Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside in Polish Winter Wheat

1
Department of Food Analysis, Prof. Waclaw Dabrowski Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology, Rakowiecka 36, 02-532 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Chemistry, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 75, 60-625 Poznan, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 10 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

The presence of mycotoxins in cereal grain is a very important food safety factor. The occurrence of “masked” mycotoxins has been intensively investigated in recent years. In this study, the occurrence of nivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, and deoxynivalenol in 92 samples of winter wheat from Polish cultivars was determined. The frequency of the occurrence of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol in the samples was 83% and 70%, respectively. The average content of the analytes was: for deoxynivalenol 140.2 µg/kg (10.5–1265.4 µg/kg), for nivalenol 35.0 µg/kg (5.1–372.5 µg/kg). Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, the formation of which is connected with the biotransformation pathway in plants, was present in 27% of tested wheat samples; its average content was 41.9 µg/kg (15.8–137.5 µg/kg). The relative content of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3G) compared to deoxynivalenol (DON) in positive samples was 4–37%. Despite the high frequency of occurrence of these mycotoxins, the quality of wheat from the 2016 season was good. The maximum content of DON, as defined in EU regulations (1250 µg/kg), was exceeded in only one sample. Nevertheless, the presence of a glycosidic derivative of deoxynivalenol can increase the risk to food safety, as it can be hydrolyzed by intestinal microflora. View Full-Text
Keywords: deoxynivalenol; deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside; masked mycotoxins; nivalenol; winter wheat deoxynivalenol; deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside; masked mycotoxins; nivalenol; winter wheat
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Bryła, M.; Ksieniewicz-Woźniak, E.; Waśkiewicz, A.; Szymczyk, K.; Jędrzejczak, R. Natural Occurrence of Nivalenol, Deoxynivalenol, and Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside in Polish Winter Wheat. Toxins 2018, 10, 81.

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