Next Article in Journal
An Improved Method for the Sensitive Detection of Shiga Toxin 2 in Human Serum
Previous Article in Journal
Activation of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Alleviates Total ROS in Aspergillus parasiticus
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Contractile Response of Bovine Lateral Saphenous Vein to Ergotamine Tartrate Exposed to Different Concentrations of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer

Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546, USA
Center for Animal Nutrigenomics & Applied Animal Nutrition, Alltech Inc. 3031 Catnip Hill Road, Nicholasville, KY 40356, USA
USDA-ARS, Forage-Animal Production Research Unit, Lexington, KY 40546, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2018, 10(2), 58;
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
PDF [1689 KB, uploaded 30 January 2018]


Ergot alkaloids, in their active isomeric form, affect animal health and performance, and adsorbents are used to mitigate toxicities by reducing bioavailability. Adsorbents with high specificity (molecularly imprinted polymers: MIP) adsorb ergot alkaloids in vitro, but require evaluation for biological implications. Using ex vivo myography, synthetic polymers were evaluated for effects on the bioactivity of ergotamine tartrate (ETA). Polymers were first evaluated using isotherms. Lateral saphenous veins were collected from 17 steers for four independent studies: dose response of ETA, adsorbent dose response, validation of pre-myograph incubation conditions and MIP/ non-molecularly imprinted polymer (NIP) comparison. Norepinephrine normalized percent contractile response to increasing ETA exhibited a sigmoidal dose response (max: 88.47 and log of the effective molar concentration (EC50) (−log [ETA]) of 6.66 ± 0.17 M). Although sample preparation time affected contractile response (p < 0.001), pre-myograph incubation temperature (39 vs. 21 °C, 1 h) had no effect (p > 0.05). Isothermal adsorption showed a maximum adsorption of 3.27E-008 moles·mg−1 and affinity between 0.51 and 0.57 mg (R2: 0.83–0.92) for both polymers, with no significant difference between polymers (p > 0.05). No significant differences in maximum inhibitory (p = 0.96) and IC50 responses (p = 0.163) between MIP and NIP were noticed. Normalized percent contraction could be predicted from the in vitro adsorption data (R2 = 0.87, p < 0.01), for both polymers. These studies indicate that synthetic polymers are potentially effective adsorbents to mitigate ergot toxicity caused by ergot alkaloids, with little evidence of significant differences between MIP and NIP in aqueous media. View Full-Text
Keywords: ergot alkaloids; myograph; imprinted polymer ergot alkaloids; myograph; imprinted polymer

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kudupoje, M.B.; Klotz, J.L.; Yiannikouris, A.; Dawson, K.A.; McLeod, K.R.; Vanzant, E.S. Contractile Response of Bovine Lateral Saphenous Vein to Ergotamine Tartrate Exposed to Different Concentrations of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer. Toxins 2018, 10, 58.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top