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Toxins 2018, 10(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10020050

Assessment of Urinary Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in UK Children and Adolescents

1
Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Hull, Brocklehurst Building, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull HU3 2RW, UK
2
Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, LICAMM, School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
3
Department of Food Safety, Nutrition and Veterinary Public Health, Food Chemical Risk, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
4
Department of Environmental Medicine, Hainan Medical University, 3 Xueyuan Road, Haikou 571199, China
5
Public Health and Risk Analysis, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell’Università, 10, 35020 Legnaro, Italy
6
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Umbria e delle Marche, Via G. Salvemini 1, 06126 Perugia, Italy
7
Echuca Regional Health, Service Street, Echuca 3564, Australia
8
Weill Cornell Medicine in Qatar, Education City, P.O. Box 24144, Qatar
M.P. and L.W. acted as first authors for this work.
L.J.H. and T.S. acted as senior co-authors for this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 December 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Fusarium Toxins – Relevance for Human and Animal Health)
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Abstract

Deoxynivalenol (DON), the mycotoxin produced mainly by Fusarium graminearum and found in contaminated cereal-based foodstuff, has been consistently detected in body fluids in adults. Available data in children and adolescents are scarce. This study assessed urinary DON concentrations in children aged 3–9 years (n = 40) and adolescents aged 10–17 years (n = 39) in the UK. Morning urine samples were collected over two consecutive days and analysed for free DON (un-metabolised form), DON-glucuronides (DON-GlcA), deepoxy deoxynivalenol (DOM-1), and total DON (sum of free DON, DON-GlcA, and DOM-1). Total DON was detected in the urine of >95% of children and adolescents on both days. Mean total DON concentrations (ng/mg creatinine) were 41.6 and 21.0 for children and adolescents, respectively. The greatest total DON levels were obtained in female children on both days (214 and 219 ng/mg creatinine on days 1 and 2, respectively). Free DON and DON-GlcA were detected in most urine specimens, whereas DOM-1 was not present in any sample. Estimation of dietary DON exposure suggested that 33–63% of children and 5–46% of adolescents exceeded current guidance regarding the maximum provisional tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) for DON. Although moderate mean urinary DON concentrations were shown, the high detection frequency of urinary DON, the maximum biomarker concentrations, and estimated dietary DON exposure are concerning. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; deoxynivalenol; Fusarium graminearum; children; adolescents; biomonitoring mycotoxins; deoxynivalenol; Fusarium graminearum; children; adolescents; biomonitoring
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Papageorgiou, M.; Wells, L.; Williams, C.; White, K.; De Santis, B.; Liu, Y.; Debegnach, F.; Miano, B.; Moretti, G.; Greetham, S.; Brera, C.; Atkin, S.L.; Hardie, L.J.; Sathyapalan, T. Assessment of Urinary Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in UK Children and Adolescents. Toxins 2018, 10, 50.

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