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Toxins 2018, 10(12), 524;

New Insights into the Occurrence and Toxin Profile of Ciguatoxins in Selvagens Islands (Madeira, Portugal)

IPMA—Portuguese Institute of the Sea and Atmosphere, Av. Brasília, 1449-006 Lisbon, Portugal
Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, University of Vigo, Campus Universitario de Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain
Regional Fisheries Management—Madeira Government, DSI-DRP, Estrada da Pontinha 9004-562 Funchal, Madeira, Portugal
Instituto das Florestas e Conservação da Natureza, IP-RAM, Secretaria Regional do Ambiente e Recursos Naturais, Regional Government of Madeira, IFCN IP-RAM, Quinta Vila Passos—Rua Alferes Veiga Pestana 15, 9054-505 Funchal, Madeira, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Marine Biotoxins)
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Ciguatoxins (CTXs), endemic from tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific and Indian Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, have caused several human poisonings during the last decade in Europe. Ciguatera fish poisonings (CFP) in Madeira and Canary Islands appear to be particularly related with consumption of fish caught close to Selvagens Islands, a Portuguese natural reserve composed of three small islands that harbor high fish biomass. In this study, fish specimens considered as potential vectors of CTXs were caught in Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos for toxins determination via sensitive liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC–MS/MS). CTXs were found in most of the fish samples from Selvagens and none from Madeira. Caribbean ciguatoxin-1 (C-CTX1) was the only toxin congener determined, reaching the highest value of 0.25 µg C-CTX1 kg−1 in a 4.6 kg island grouper (Mycteroperca fusca). This study indicates that a diversity of fish from different trophic levels contains CTXs, Selvagens appear to be one of the most favorable locations for CTXs food web transfer and finally, this study highlights the need of further research based on intensive environmental and biological sampling on these remote islands. View Full-Text
Keywords: ciguatera fish poisoning; gambierdiscus; seafood safety; C-CTX-1 ciguatera fish poisoning; gambierdiscus; seafood safety; C-CTX-1

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Costa, P.R.; Estevez, P.; Castro, D.; Soliño, L.; Gouveia, N.; Santos, C.; Rodrigues, S.M.; Leao, J.M.; Gago-Martínez, A. New Insights into the Occurrence and Toxin Profile of Ciguatoxins in Selvagens Islands (Madeira, Portugal). Toxins 2018, 10, 524.

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