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Toxins 2018, 10(10), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10100418

Spatial and Temporal Variability in the Development and Potential Toxicity of Phormidium Biofilms in the Tarn River, France

1
INRA, Sorbonne University, iEES Paris, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris CEDEX, France
2
Unité Molécules de Communication et Adaptation des Microorganismes (MCAM, UMR 7245), Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, CNRS, Case 39, 57 rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris, France
3
Department Sciences du Vivant, Paris Diderot University, 5 rue T. Mann, 75013 Paris, France
Current address: GEMA Center for Genomics, Ecology and Environment, Universidad Mayor, Camino La Pirámide 5750, Santiago 8580745, Chile.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 24 September 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract

Proliferation of Phormidium biofilms in rivers is becoming a worldwide sanitation problem for humans and animals, due to the ability of these bacteria to produce anatoxins. To better understand the environmental conditions that favor the development of Phormidium biofilms and the production of anatoxins, we monitored the formation of these biofilms and their toxins for two years in the Tarn River, biofilms from which are known to have caused the deaths of multiple dogs. As previously observed in New Zealand, Phormidium biofilm development occurred in riffle areas. The coverage of these biofilms at the bottom of the river exhibited strong spatial and temporal variations, but was positively correlated with water temperature and depth. Anatoxin-a was detected in less than 50% of the biofilms. The concentrations of these toxins in the biofilms exhibited high spatiotemporal variability, with the highest concentrations being recorded at the end of the summer period at the upstream sampling sites. These findings suggest that the maturity of the biofilms, combined with the local environmental conditions, have an impact on the production of anatoxin, making risk assessment for these benthic proliferations challenging. View Full-Text
Keywords: river biofilms; benthic cyanobacteria; biofilm development; anatoxins; mass spectrometry; model II regression; coefficient of determination river biofilms; benthic cyanobacteria; biofilm development; anatoxins; mass spectrometry; model II regression; coefficient of determination
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Echenique-Subiabre, I.; Tenon, M.; Humbert, J.-F.; Quiblier, C. Spatial and Temporal Variability in the Development and Potential Toxicity of Phormidium Biofilms in the Tarn River, France. Toxins 2018, 10, 418.

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