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Toxins 2018, 10(10), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10100402

Extensive Contamination of Water with Saxitoxin Near the Dam of the Irkutsk Hydropower Station Reservoir (East Siberia, Russia)

1
Limnological Institute, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Science, 3 Ulan-Batorskaya str., 664033 Irkutsk, Russia
2
A.E. Favorsky Irkutsk Institute of Chemistry, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Science, 1 Favorsky str., 664033 Irkutsk, Russia
3
Stylab Company, 5 Zvenigorodskoye hwy., 123022 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 29 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
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Abstract

An area of discolored water 50 m wide and 30 m long was found in September 2017 close to the dam of the Irkutsk hydroelectric power station. Water from this spot was sampled for investigation in the present study. Microscopic analysis revealed that the suspended matter in the sample was composed of clumps of filaments, vegetative cells, akinetes and heterocysts that formed short filaments and solitary cells. This matter was found to consist of partially degraded cells of the cyanobacterium Dolichospermum lemmermannii. Nucleotide sequencing of DNA isolated from the biomass revealed the presence of the sxtA gene which is involved in the synthesis of saxitoxin. Water from the polluted area contained 600 ± 100 μg L−1 saxitoxin as measured by HPLC-MS with pre-column modification of the toxin with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Immunoassay analysis (ELISA) showed a concentration of saxitoxins in the water of 2900 ± 900 μg L−1. Hydrochemical and microbiological analyses suggested the contaminated area appeared as a result of a D. lemmermannii bloom, followed by its decay and release of saxitoxin and nutrients. The present paper describes the results of a case study. Better understanding of the phenomenon will depend on the possibility to perform implementation of a large-scale monitoring program. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanobacteria; Dolichospermum lemmermannii; saxitoxin; Lake Baikal; Irkutsk reservoir; HPLC-MS; ELISA; hydrochemical analysis cyanobacteria; Dolichospermum lemmermannii; saxitoxin; Lake Baikal; Irkutsk reservoir; HPLC-MS; ELISA; hydrochemical analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Grachev, M.; Zubkov, I.; Tikhonova, I.; Ivacheva, M.; Kuzmin, A.; Sukhanova, E.; Sorokovikova, E.; Fedorova, G.; Galkin, A.; Suslova, M.; Netsvetayeva, O.; Eletskaya, E.; Pogadaeva, T.; Smirnov, V.; Ivanov, A.; Shagun, V.; Minaev, V.; Belykh, O. Extensive Contamination of Water with Saxitoxin Near the Dam of the Irkutsk Hydropower Station Reservoir (East Siberia, Russia). Toxins 2018, 10, 402.

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