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Open AccessArticle

Vitamin D Nutritional Status and its Related Factors for Chinese Children and Adolescents in 2010–2012

Key Laboratory of Trace Element Nutrition of National Health and Family Planning Commission, National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1024;
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chinese National Nutrition Survey 2012)
Vitamin D plays a critical role in calcium and phosphate metabolism and helps maintain skeletal integrity in childhood, yet vitamin D status in Chinese children and adolescents is not well documented. The aim of this study was to assess the vitamin D status and analyze the risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in Chinese children and adolescents aged 6–17 years. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured with a radioimmunoassay kit in 15,000 children and adolescent participants in the Chinese national nutrition and health survey (CNNHS) 2010–2012. Age, gender, region type, ethnicity, outdoor time, and vitamin D supplementation were recorded in unified design questionnaires. The season was recorded by the date of blood taken; location was divided into north and south by China′s Qinling Mountains and Huaihe River; and ambient ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation level was classified according to the corresponding dose of each participant living area from National Aeronautics and Space Administration data. 14,473 participants from the cross-sectional study of CNNHS 2010–2012 were included in this study. The median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 48.2 (35.4–63.4) nmol/L, and the concentration for males was 50.0 (36.5–65.7) nmol/L, which was statistically higher than that of females (46.7 (34.4–60.9) nmol/L) (P < 0.001). The general prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 53.2%; 50.0% for males and 56.5% for females at the cut-off 50 nmol/L. According to the results of the log-binomial regression analysis, vitamin D deficiency in Chinese children and adolescents was specifically related to female gender (P < 0.0001), to ages 12–14 years (P < 0.0001) and 15–17 years (P < 0.0001), living in large cities (P < 0.0001) or ordinary rural areas (P < 0.0001), low ambient UVB levels (P < 0.0001) and medium ambient UVB levels (P < 0.0001), spring (P < 0.0001), autumn (P < 0.0001) and winter seasons (P < 0.0001). The data showed that vitamin D deficiency was very common among children and adolescents aged 6–17 years in China. Effective sun exposure should be encouraged in both genders aged 6–17 years, dietary vitamin D and vitamin D supplements are also recommended, especially in the seasons of spring and winter. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; Chinese children and adolescents; 25-hydroxyviramin D vitamin D; Chinese children and adolescents; 25-hydroxyviramin D
MDPI and ACS Style

Hu, Y.; Chen, J.; Wang, R.; Li, M.; Yun, C.; Li, W.; Yang, Y.; Piao, J.; Yang, X.; Yang, L. Vitamin D Nutritional Status and its Related Factors for Chinese Children and Adolescents in 2010–2012. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1024.

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