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Open AccessArticle

Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique

Faculdade de Ciências da Nutrição e Alimentação da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Avenida Salvador Allende, n° 702, 1111 Maputo, Mozambique
Departamento de Ciências da Saúde Pública e Forenses e Educação Médica, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
EPIUnit-Instituto de Saúde Pública, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Taipas, n° 135, 4050-600 Porto, Portugal
Centro de Investigação em Atividade Física, Saúde e Lazer, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Plácido da Costa, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 830;
Received: 10 June 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium). Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium) was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation) urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830) mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0%) and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%). The mean (standard deviation) urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778) mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation) sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4). Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique. View Full-Text
Keywords: sodium; salt; urinary sodium; urinary potassium; Mozambique; Africa sodium; salt; urinary sodium; urinary potassium; Mozambique; Africa
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Queiroz, A.; Damasceno, A.; Jessen, N.; Novela, C.; Moreira, P.; Lunet, N.; Padrão, P. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique. Nutrients 2017, 9, 830.

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