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Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 790;

Prenatal Vitamin D Intake, Cord Blood 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, and Offspring Body Composition: The Healthy Start Study

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
Department of Biostatistics and Informatics, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
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Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy may be associated with increased offspring adiposity, but evidence from human studies is inconclusive. We examined associations between prenatal vitamin D intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in cord blood, and offspring size and body composition at birth and 5 months. Participants included 605 mother-offspring dyads from the Healthy Start study, an ongoing, pre-birth prospective cohort study in Denver, Colorado, USA. Prenatal vitamin D intake was assessed with diet recalls and questionnaires, and offspring body composition was measured via air displacement plethysmography at birth and 5 months. General linear univariate models were used for analysis, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), offspring sex, and gestational age at birth. Non-Hispanic white race, lower pre-pregnancy BMI, higher prenatal vitamin D intake, and summer births were associated with higher cord blood 25(OH)D. Higher 25(OH)D was associated with lower birthweight (β = –6.22, p = 0.02), but as maternal BMI increased, this association became increasingly positive in direction and magnitude (β = 1.05, p = 0.04). Higher 25(OH)D was also associated with lower neonatal adiposity (β = –0.02, p < 0.05) but not after adjustment for maternal BMI (β = –0.01, p = 0.25). Cord blood 25(OH)D was not associated with offspring size or body composition at 5 months. Our data confirm the hypothesis that vitamin D exposure in early life is associated with neonatal body size and composition. Future research is needed to understand the implications of these associations as infants grow. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; pregnancy; birth; body composition; adiposity vitamin D; pregnancy; birth; body composition; adiposity

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Sauder, K.A.; Koeppen, H.J.; Shapiro, A.L.; Kalata, K.E.; Stamatoiu, A.V.; Ringham, B.M.; Glueck, D.H.; Norris, J.M.; Dabelea, D. Prenatal Vitamin D Intake, Cord Blood 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, and Offspring Body Composition: The Healthy Start Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 790.

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