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n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Metabolic Syndrome Risk: A Meta-Analysis

by Xiao-fei Guo 1, Xin Li 2, Meiqi Shi 2 and Duo Li 1,3,*
1
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
2
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Ningxia Medicine University, Yinchuan 750004, China
3
Institute of Nutrition and Health, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070703
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 2 July 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health)
The associations between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk have demonstrated inconsistent results. The present study aimed to investigate whether higher circulating n-3 PUFAs and dietary n-3 PUFAs intake have a protective effect on MetS risk. A systematic literature search in the PubMed, Scopus, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases was conducted up to March 2017. Odd ratios (ORs) from case-control and cross-sectional studies were combined using a random-effects model for the highest versus lowest category. The differences of n-3 PUFAs between healthy subjects and patients with MetS were calculated as weighted mean difference (WMD) by using a random-effects model. Seven case-control and 20 cross-sectional studies were included. A higher plasma/serum n-3 PUFAs was associated with a lower MetS risk (Pooled OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.81). The plasma/serum n-3 PUFAs in controls was significantly higher than cases (WMD: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.43), especially docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, no significant association was found between dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs or fish and MetS risk. The present study provides substantial evidence of a higher circulating n-3 PUFAs associated with a lower MetS risk. The circulating n-3 PUFAs can be regarded as biomarkers indicating MetS risk, especially DPA and DHA. View Full-Text
Keywords: n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; docosapentaenoic acid; docosahexaenoic acid; metabolic syndrome; meta-analysis n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; docosapentaenoic acid; docosahexaenoic acid; metabolic syndrome; meta-analysis
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Guo, X.-F.; Li, X.; Shi, M.; Li, D. n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Metabolic Syndrome Risk: A Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2017, 9, 703.

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