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n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Metabolic Syndrome Risk: A Meta-Analysis

by Xiao-fei Guo 1, Xin Li 2, Meiqi Shi 2 and Duo Li 1,3,*
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Ningxia Medicine University, Yinchuan 750004, China
Institute of Nutrition and Health, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 703;
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 2 July 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health)
The associations between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk have demonstrated inconsistent results. The present study aimed to investigate whether higher circulating n-3 PUFAs and dietary n-3 PUFAs intake have a protective effect on MetS risk. A systematic literature search in the PubMed, Scopus, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases was conducted up to March 2017. Odd ratios (ORs) from case-control and cross-sectional studies were combined using a random-effects model for the highest versus lowest category. The differences of n-3 PUFAs between healthy subjects and patients with MetS were calculated as weighted mean difference (WMD) by using a random-effects model. Seven case-control and 20 cross-sectional studies were included. A higher plasma/serum n-3 PUFAs was associated with a lower MetS risk (Pooled OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.81). The plasma/serum n-3 PUFAs in controls was significantly higher than cases (WMD: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.43), especially docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, no significant association was found between dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs or fish and MetS risk. The present study provides substantial evidence of a higher circulating n-3 PUFAs associated with a lower MetS risk. The circulating n-3 PUFAs can be regarded as biomarkers indicating MetS risk, especially DPA and DHA. View Full-Text
Keywords: n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; docosapentaenoic acid; docosahexaenoic acid; metabolic syndrome; meta-analysis n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; docosapentaenoic acid; docosahexaenoic acid; metabolic syndrome; meta-analysis
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Guo, X.-F.; Li, X.; Shi, M.; Li, D. n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Metabolic Syndrome Risk: A Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2017, 9, 703.

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