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Open AccessReview

Evidence of the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics in Intestinal Chronic Diseases

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, School of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada 18071, Spain
Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology “José Mataix”, Biomedical Research Center, University of Granada, Armilla, Granada 18016, Spain
Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs., GRANADA, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Granada, Granada 18014, Spain
CIBEROBN (Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition CB12/03/30038), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid 28029, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 555;
Received: 30 April 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 28 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases)
Probiotics and synbiotics are used to treat chronic diseases, principally due to their role in immune system modulation and the anti-inflammatory response. The present study reviewed the effects of probiotics and synbiotics on intestinal chronic diseases in in vitro, animal, and human studies, particularly in randomized clinical trials. The selected probiotics exhibit in vitro anti-inflammatory properties. Probiotic strains and cell-free supernatants reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines via action that is principally mediated by toll-like receptors. Probiotic administration improved the clinical symptoms, histological alterations, and mucus production in most of the evaluated animal studies, but some results suggest that caution should be taken when administering these agents in the relapse stages of IBD. In addition, no effects on chronic enteropathies were reported. Probiotic supplementation appears to be potentially well tolerated, effective, and safe in patients with IBD, in both CD and UC. Indeed, probiotics such as Bifidobacterium longum 536 improved the clinical symptoms in patients with mild to moderate active UC. Although it has been proposed that probiotics can provide benefits in certain conditions, the risks and benefits should be carefully assessed before initiating any therapy in patients with IBD. For this reason, further studies are required to understand the precise mechanism by which probiotics and synbiotics affect these diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: probiotics; intestinal diseases; anti-inflammatory effects; inflammatory bowel diseases probiotics; intestinal diseases; anti-inflammatory effects; inflammatory bowel diseases
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MDPI and ACS Style

Plaza-Díaz, J.; Ruiz-Ojeda, F.J.; Vilchez-Padial, L.M.; Gil, A. Evidence of the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics in Intestinal Chronic Diseases. Nutrients 2017, 9, 555.

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