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Open AccessArticle

Dietary Intake of Individual (Free and Intrinsic) Sugars and Food Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

1
Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN), C/General Álvarez de Castro 20, 28010 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, C/Irunlarrea 1, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, Institute of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Granada, Campus de la Salud, Avda. del Conocimiento, Armilla, 18100 Granada, Spain
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ImFINE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Technical University of Madrid, C/Martín Fierro 7, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, C/Doctor Pasteur s/n Trasera del Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35016 Las Palmas, Spain
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Department of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, CEU San Pablo University, Urb. Montepríncipe, Crta. Boadilla Km 53, Boadilla del Monte, 28668 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030275
Received: 8 November 2016 / Revised: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
The consumption of total and individual sugars is controversial and little is known about consumption and dietary sources in Spain. The purpose was to examine free and intrinsic sugar intake and food and beverage sources. The ANIBES Study (Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain), a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old; n = 2009) carried out in 2013, was used. Food and beverage records were obtained by a three-day dietary record by using a tablet device. The median total sugar intake was 71.5 g/day (17% Total Energy, TE), the intrinsic sugar intake was 38.3 g/day (9.6% TE), and the free sugar was 28.8 g/day (7.3% TE). Total sugar intake (free and intrinsic) was higher in men than in women for all age groups, although in terms of the contribution to total energy intake, the opposite was observed. Differences were observed for free sugar consumption dependent on age and marked differences (up to two-fold) were observed when considering the percent TE, which was much higher in children and adolescents. For the intrinsic sugar, however, a higher contribution to TE was observed in the elderly. The major sources of intrinsic sugars were fruits (31.8%), milks (19.6%), juices and nectars (11.1%), vegetables (9.89%), yogurt and fermented milk (7.18%), low-alcohol-content beverages (4,94%), bread (2.91%), and sugar soft drinks (2.24%), greater than 90% from diet contribution. As for free sugars, sources were sugar soft drinks (25.5%), sugar (17.8%), bakery and pastry items (15.2%), chocolates (11.4%), yogurt and fermented milk (6.44%), other dairy products (5.99%), jams (3.58%), juices and nectars (2.91%), and breakfast cereals and cereal bars (2.78%), summing up to 90% of the contribution. The present study demonstrates that only a moderate percentage of the Spanish population adhered to the present recommendations for total sugar intake, and urgent efforts are needed to improve diet quality in the youngest populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: sugar intake; added sugar intake; free sugar intake; intrinsic sugar intake; dietary sources of sugars; ANIBES study sugar intake; added sugar intake; free sugar intake; intrinsic sugar intake; dietary sources of sugars; ANIBES study
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Ruiz, E.; Rodriguez, P.; Valero, T.; Ávila, J.M.; Aranceta-Bartrina, J.; Gil, Á.; González-Gross, M.; Ortega, R.M.; Serra-Majem, L.; Varela-Moreiras, G. Dietary Intake of Individual (Free and Intrinsic) Sugars and Food Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 275.

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