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Open AccessReview

Matching Meals to Body Clocks—Impact on Weight and Glucose Metabolism

1
Adelaide Medical School, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5000, Australia
2
South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI), North Terrace, Adelaide SA 5005, Australia
3
Robinson Research Institute, The University of Adelaide, North Adelaide SA 5006, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030222
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes continues to rise worldwide and is reaching pandemic proportions. The notion that this is due to obesity, resulting from excessive energy consumption and reduced physical activity, is overly simplistic. Circadian de-synchrony, which occurs when physiological processes are at odds with timing imposed by internal clocks, also promotes obesity and impairs glucose tolerance in mouse models, and is a feature of modern human lifestyles. The purpose of this review is to highlight what is known about glucose metabolism in animal and human models of circadian de-synchrony and examine the evidence as to whether shifts in meal timing contribute to impairments in glucose metabolism, gut hormone secretion and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Lastly, we examine whether restricting food intake to discrete time periods, will prevent or reverse abnormalities in glucose metabolism with the view to improving metabolic health in shift workers and in those more generally at risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: circadian rhythm; glucose metabolism; time-restricted feeding; type 2 diabetes; chronic disease risk circadian rhythm; glucose metabolism; time-restricted feeding; type 2 diabetes; chronic disease risk
MDPI and ACS Style

Hutchison, A.T.; Wittert, G.A.; Heilbronn, L.K. Matching Meals to Body Clocks—Impact on Weight and Glucose Metabolism. Nutrients 2017, 9, 222.

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