Next Article in Journal
The Risk of Being Obese According to Short Sleep Duration Is Modulated after Menopause in Korean Women
Next Article in Special Issue
Stirring the Pot: Can Dietary Modification Alleviate the Burden of CKD?
Previous Article in Journal
Proteins in Soy Might Have a Higher Role in Cancer Prevention than Previously Expected: Soybean Protein Fractions Are More Effective MMP-9 Inhibitors Than Non-Protein Fractions, Even in Cooked Seeds
Previous Article in Special Issue
Diabetes Mellitus and Younger Age Are Risk Factors for Hyperphosphatemia in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients
Open AccessReview

Protein Nutrition and Malnutrition in CKD and ESRD

by Yan Zha 1 and Qi Qian 2,*
1
Department of Nephrology, Guizhou Provincial People’s Hospital, Guizhou 550002, China
2
Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030208
Received: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
Elevated protein catabolism and protein malnutrition are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end‐stage renal disease (ESRD). The underlying etiology includes, but is not limited to, metabolic acidosis intestinal dysbiosis; systemic inflammation with activation of complements, endothelin‐1 and renin‐angiotensin‐aldosterone (RAAS) axis; anabolic hormone resistance; energy expenditure elevation; and uremic toxin accumulation. All of these derangements can further worsen kidney function, leading to poor patient outcomes. Many of these CKD‐related derangements can be prevented and substantially reversed, representing an area of great potential to improve CKD and ESRD care. This review integrates known information and recent advances in the area of protein nutrition and malnutrition in CKD and ESRD. Management recommendations are summarized. Thorough understanding the pathogenesis and etiology of protein malnutrition in CKD and ESRD patients will undoubtedly facilitate the design and development of more effective strategies to optimize protein nutrition and improve outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: protein  nutrition;  protein  catabolism;  chronic  kidney  disease;  dialysis;  acidosis;  inflammation; hormonal derangements; uremic toxins protein  nutrition;  protein  catabolism;  chronic  kidney  disease;  dialysis;  acidosis;  inflammation; hormonal derangements; uremic toxins
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zha, Y.; Qian, Q. Protein Nutrition and Malnutrition in CKD and ESRD. Nutrients 2017, 9, 208.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop