Next Article in Journal
Maternal Low-Protein Diet Modulates Glucose Metabolism and Hepatic MicroRNAs Expression in the Early Life of Offspring †
Next Article in Special Issue
Beyond the Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Soy Protein: A Review of the Effects of Dietary Soy and Its Constituents on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease
Previous Article in Journal
The Risk of Being Obese According to Short Sleep Duration Is Modulated after Menopause in Korean Women
Previous Article in Special Issue
Proteins in Soy Might Have a Higher Role in Cancer Prevention than Previously Expected: Soybean Protein Fractions Are More Effective MMP-9 Inhibitors Than Non-Protein Fractions, Even in Cooked Seeds
Open AccessArticle

Equol, a Dietary Daidzein Gut Metabolite Attenuates Microglial Activation and Potentiates Neuroprotection In Vitro

College of Pharmacy, Gachon University, #191, Hambakmoero, Yeonsu‐gu, Incheon 21936, Korea
Department Oriental Medicine Resources, College of Environmental & Bioresources Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju City 54896, Korea
National Institute of Biological Resources, Environmental Research Complex, 42 Hwangyeong‐ro, Seo‐gu, Incheon 22689, Korea
Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Medical Center, Inchon 21565, Korea
Gachon Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Gachon University; #191 Hambakmoe‐ro, Yeonsu‐gu,   Incheon 21565, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 207;
Received: 6 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Soybean and other Grain Legumes)
Estrogen deficiency has been well characterized in inflammatory disorders including neuroinflammation. Daidzein, a dietary alternative phytoestrogen found in soy (Glycine max) as primary isoflavones, possess anti‐inflammatory activity, but the effect of its active metabolite Equol (7‐hydroxy‐3‐(4′‐hydroxyphenyl)‐chroman) has not been well established. In this study, we investigated the anti‐neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective effect of Equol in vitro. To evaluate the potential effects of Equol, three major types of central nervous system (CNS) cells, including microglia (BV‐2), astrocytes (C6), and neurons (N2a), were used. Effects of Equol on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX‐2), Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling proteins, and apoptosis‐related proteins were measured by western blot analysis. Equol inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐induced TLR4 activation, MAPK activation, NF‐kB‐mediated transcription of inflammatory mediators, production of nitric oxide (NO), release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE‐2), secretion of tumor necrosis factor‐α (TNF‐α) and interleukin 6 (IL‐6), in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐activated murine microglia cells. Additionally, Equol protects neurons from neuroinflammatory injury mediated by LPS‐activated microglia through downregulation of neuronal apoptosis, increased neurite outgrowth in N2a cell and neurotrophins like nerve growth factor (NGF) production through astrocytes further supporting its neuroprotective potential. These findings provide novel insight into the anti‐neuroinflammatory effects of Equol on microglial cells, which may have clinical significance in cases of neurodegeneration. View Full-Text
Keywords: Equol; phytoestrogen; neuroinflammation; apoptosis; neuroprotection Equol; phytoestrogen; neuroinflammation; apoptosis; neuroprotection
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Subedi, L.; Ji, E.; Shin, D.; Jin, J.; Yeo, J.H.; Kim, S.Y. Equol, a Dietary Daidzein Gut Metabolite Attenuates Microglial Activation and Potentiates Neuroprotection In Vitro. Nutrients 2017, 9, 207.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop