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Open AccessArticle

Adequacy of Usual Vitamin and Mineral Intake in Spanish Children and Adolescents: ENALIA Study

VALORNUT Research Group, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, Madrid 28040, Spain
VALORNUT Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Alfonso X El Sabio University, Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid 28691, Spain
Spanish Agency for Consumer Affairs, Food Safety and Nutrition, Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality, C/Alcalá 56, Madrid 28071, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 131;
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 3 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
Background: The National Dietary Survey on the Child and Adolescent Population in Spain (ENALIA) provides data to assess the usual micronutrient intake among Spanish infants, children, and adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional survey (November 2012–July 2014) of a representative sample of Spanish children and adolescents (six months–17 years) (n = 1862). Dietary information was collected using two non-consecutive one-day food diaries (six months–10 years old) or two 24 h dietary recalls (11 years and older) separated by at least 14 days. Estimates were calculated using the Iowa State University method and PC-SIDE software (version 1.0, department of statistics, center for agricultural and rural development, Ames, IA, USA) to account for within- and between-person variation. Results: Usual intake of vitamin D was insufficient in practically all individuals. Vitamin E, folate, and calcium were insufficient, especially from nine years of age, and magnesium and iodine from 14 years of age. The percentage of subjects with insufficient intakes was higher among females. Sodium intake was excessive in a considerable percentage of the population, especially in males, and it increased with age. Finally, over half of children under four years of age had zinc usual intakes that exceeded the Tolerable Upper Level. Conclusion: Vitamin and mineral intake in Spain should be improved, especially in late childhood and adolescence. Nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating habits and correct micronutrient inadequacies in Spanish children and adolescents. View Full-Text
Keywords: usual intake; children; adolescents; micronutrient; vitamins; minerals; Spain usual intake; children; adolescents; micronutrient; vitamins; minerals; Spain
MDPI and ACS Style

López-Sobaler, A.M.; Aparicio, A.; González-Rodríguez, L.G.; Cuadrado-Soto, E.; Rubio, J.; Marcos, V.; Sanchidrián, R.; Santos, S.; Pérez-Farinós, N.; Dal Re, M.Á.; Villar, C.; Robledo, T.; Castrodeza, J.J.; Ortega, R.M. Adequacy of Usual Vitamin and Mineral Intake in Spanish Children and Adolescents: ENALIA Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 131.

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