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Open AccessArticle

Dietary Patterns of European Children and Their Parents in Association with Family Food Environment: Results from the I.Family Study

Leibniz‐Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology—BIPS, 28359 Bremen, Germany
Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, 83100 Avellino, Italy
Department of Public Health, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, 40530 Gothenburg, Sweden
Research and Education Institute of Child Health, 2035 Strovolos, Cyprus
Institute for Medical Information Processing, Biometrics and Epidemiology, Ludwig‐Maximilians‐Universität München, 81377 Munich, Germany
German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders, Ludwig‐Maximilians‐Universität München, 81377 Munich, Germany
GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS Aragón), Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
Department of Chronic Diseases, National Institute for Health Development, 11619 Tallinn, Estonia
Department of Preventive and Predictive Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, 20133 Milan, Italy
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
Finnish Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 126;
Received: 18 November 2016 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Behavior in Children)
The aim of this study was to determine whether an association exists between children’s and parental dietary patterns (DP), and whether the number of shared meals or soft drink availability during meals strengthens this association. In 2013/2014 the I.Family study cross‐sectionally assessed the dietary intakes of families from eight European countries using 24‐h dietary recalls. Usual energy and food intakes from six‐ to 16‐year‐old children and their parents were estimated based on the NCI Method. A total of 1662 child–mother and 789 child–father dyads were included; DP were derived using cluster analysis. We investigated the association between children’s and parental DP and whether the number of shared meals or soft drink availability moderated this association using mixed effects logistic regression models. Three DP comparable in children and parents were obtained: Sweet & Fat, Refined Cereals, and Animal Products. Children were more likely to be allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP when their fathers were allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP and when they shared at least one meal per day (OR 3.18; 95% CI 1.84; 5.47). Being allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP increased when the mother or the father was allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP and when soft drinks were available (OR 2.78; 95% CI 1.80; 4.28 or OR 4.26; 95% CI 2.16; 8.41, respectively). Availability of soft drinks and negative parental role modeling are important predictors of children’s dietary patterns. View Full-Text
Keywords: food consumption; family resemblance; cluster analysis; shared meals; soft drink;  childhood obesity food consumption; family resemblance; cluster analysis; shared meals; soft drink;  childhood obesity
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Hebestreit, A.; Intemann, T.; Siani, A.; De Henauw, S.; Eiben, G.; Kourides, Y.A.; Kovacs, E.; Moreno, L.A.; Veidebaum, T.; Krogh, V.; Pala, V.; Bogl, L.H.; Hunsberger, M.; Börnhorst, C.; Pigeot, I. Dietary Patterns of European Children and Their Parents in Association with Family Food Environment: Results from the I.Family Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 126.

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