2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Population and Dietary Data
2.2. Energy, Protein and Amino Acid Compositions of the Diet
2.3. Adequacy of Protein and Individual Amino Acid Intakes
2.4. Simulations of Changes to the Plant:Animal Protein Ratio
- Model P, a protein-adjusted model in which the animal protein was replaced with the same amount of plant protein using sources already consumed by each individual. The proportion of protein from each plant food within the total plant protein intake was kept constant, as was the proportion of protein from each animal food within the total animal protein intake. In this model, the total protein intake of each individual thus remained constant.
- Model A, an energy-adjusted model in which animal protein was replaced with the same amount of energy (without alcohol) intake from plant foods already consumed. The proportion of energy from each plant food within the total plant energy intake was kept constant, as was the proportion of protein from each animal food within the total animal protein intake. In this model, the total energy intake (without alcohol) of each individual thus remained constant (Figure 1a).
- Model B, an energy-adjusted model in which animal protein was replaced with the same amount of energy (without alcohol) from a mix of legumes, nuts and seeds. The mix was defined by the observed intake of legumes, nuts and seeds in the INCA2 study. For example, 1 g of beef steak protein (i.e., 3.6 g of beef steak) is replaced by 0.17 g of legumes protein (2.35 g of legumes) and 0.07g of nuts and seeds protein (0.34 g of nuts and seeds) (Figure 1b).
- Additionally, intermediate models combining model A and model B were designed. In these models, animal protein was replaced with the same amount of energy (without alcohol) from both plant foods already consumed and the mix of legumes, nuts and seeds in various proportions. The proportions of the mix of legumes, nuts and seeds in the substituting combination were 0% (i.e., same as Model A), 20% (model C20), 40% (model C40), 60% (model C60), 80% (model C80) and 100% (i.e., same as Model B).
2.5. Statistical Analyses
3.1. Protein and Amino Acid Intakes and Adequacy to Requirements
3.2. Foods Contributing to Protein and Amino Acid Intakes
3.3. Association between Protein and Lysine Adequacy and Dietary Plant Protein Intake
4.1. Protein and Amino Acid Intakes and Adequacy Regarding Requirements
4.2. Foods Contributing to Protein and Amino Acid Intakes
4.3. Association between Protein and Lysine Adequacy and Dietary Plant Protein Intake
Conflicts of Interest
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|Food Contributing to Intake||% Protein Intake 2||% Lysine Intake 2|
|Animal||69.2 ± 8.4||68.5 ± 7.7||83.7 ± 5.9||82.5 ± 5.7|
|Meat||40.6 ± 13.6||34.7 ± 11.2||51 ± 15.3||43.5 ± 13.3|
|Red meat||19.4 ± 11.2||16.6 ± 9.2||23.7 ± 13.7||20.1 ± 11.2|
|Poultry||10.7 ± 10.4||9.3 ± 8||14.7 ± 13.7||12.8 ± 10.7|
|Game||0.4 ± 2.2||0.1 ± 1.1||0.5 ± 3||0.2 ± 1.5|
|Offal||0.8 ± 2.3||0.8 ± 2.2||0.9 ± 2.6||1 ± 2.5|
|Delicatessen||9.4 ± 6.1||7.8 ± 5.2||11.2 ± 7.6||9.4 ± 6.4|
|Fish||6.3 ± 6.6||8.2 ± 6.4||8.3 ± 8.6||10.7 ± 8.5|
|Dairy products||19 ± 9.1||21.4 ± 7.9||21.3 ± 10.9||24.3 ± 9.4|
|Milk||5.2 ± 5.7||6.6 ± 5.6||5.7 ± 6.7||7.2 ± 6.5|
|Yogurt||3.2 ± 4.1||4.9 ± 4.1||3.9 ± 4.9||5.9 ± 4.9|
|Cheese||10.2 ± 6.6||9.5 ± 5.7||11.4 ± 7.8||10.8 ± 6.8|
|Other dairy products||0.4 ± 0.3||0.5 ± 0.4||0.4 ± 0.3||0.4 ± 0.4|
|Eggs||3.3 ± 2.5||4.3 ± 2.7||3.1 ± 2.6||4 ± 2.9|
|Plant||30.8 ± 8.4||31.5 ± 7.7||16.3 ± 5.9||17.5 ± 5.7|
|Cereals||21.5 ± 7.4||20.2 ± 6.3||8.9 ± 4.3||8.6 ± 3.5|
|Potatoes||1.8 ± 1.2||1.9 ± 1.2||1.6 ± 1.1||1.8 ± 1.1|
|Fruit||1.6 ± 1.4||2.2 ± 1.9||1 ± 1.1||1.5 ± 1.5|
|Vegetables||2.4 ± 1.4||3.1 ± 1.5||2.3 ± 1.4||2.9 ± 1.4|
|Nuts and seeds||0.8 ± 1.5||0.8 ± 1.2||0.4 ± 0.7||0.4 ± 0.6|
|Legumes||1 ± 1.7||1.1 ± 1.9||1.1 ± 1.8||1.1 ± 2|
|Other plant products||1.2 ± 1||1.5 ± 1.1||0.6 ± 0.8||0.8 ± 0.9|
|Seasonings||0.5 ± 0.4||0.6 ± 0.7||0.4 ± 0.4||0.5 ± 0.6|
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