(1) Background: Celiac disease (CD) patients can be affected by mouth and tooth disorders, which are influenced by their gluten-free diet. The aim of our research was to evaluate the pathological conditions of the stomatognathic system observed in celiac patients on a gluten-free diet. (2) Methods: we consecutively recruited celiac patients on a gluten-free diet at our celiac center, as well as healthy volunteers. Two dentists examined all patients/controls and checked them for any mouth disorder. (3) Results: Forty-nine patients affected by celiac disease (age at test 31.8 ± 11.58, time on GFD 8.73 ± 7.7) and 51 healthy volunteers (age at test 30.5 ± 8.7) were included. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis was reported in 26 patients (53.0%) and in 13 (25.5%) controls (p
= 0.005). Dental enamel disorders were reported in 7 patients (14.3%) and in 0 controls (p
= 0.002), with none having geographic tongue. We found non-specific tooth wear, characterized by loss of the mineralized tissue of the teeth, in 9 patients (18.3%) and in 3 (5.9%) controls (p
= 0.05). (4) Conclusion: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis and enamel hypoplasia are “risk indicators” that may suggest that an individual has CD. We detected a high prevalence of non-specific tooth wear that can be caused by several factors such as malocclusion, sleep bruxism, parafunctional activity, and age.
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