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The Effect of a Diet Moderately High in Protein and Fiber on Insulin Sensitivity Measured Using the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST)

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Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
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Edgar Diabetes and Obesity Research Centre, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
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Riddet Institute, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
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Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121291
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 24 November 2017 / Published: 27 November 2017
Evidence shows that weight loss improves insulin sensitivity but few studies have examined the effect of macronutrient composition independently of weight loss on direct measures of insulin sensitivity. We randomised 89 overweight or obese women to either a standard diet (StdD), that was intended to be low in fat and relatively high in carbohydrate (n = 42) or to a relatively high protein (up to 30% of energy), relatively high fibre (>30 g/day) diet (HPHFib) (n = 47) for 10 weeks. Advice regarding strict adherence to energy intake goals was not given. Insulin sensitivity and secretion was assessed by a novel method—the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST). Although there were significant improvements in body composition and most cardiometabolic risk factors on HPHFib, insulin sensitivity was reduced by 19.3% (95% CI: 31.8%, 4.5%; p = 0.013) in comparison with StdD. We conclude that the reduction in insulin sensitivity after a diet relatively high in both protein and fibre, despite cardiometabolic improvements, suggests insulin sensitivity may reflect metabolic adaptations to dietary composition for maintenance of glucose homeostasis, rather than impaired metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet; dietary protein; dietary fibre; insulin sensitivity assessment; insulin sensitivity; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome diet; dietary protein; dietary fibre; insulin sensitivity assessment; insulin sensitivity; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome
MDPI and ACS Style

Te Morenga, L.; Docherty, P.; Williams, S.; Mann, J. The Effect of a Diet Moderately High in Protein and Fiber on Insulin Sensitivity Measured Using the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST). Nutrients 2017, 9, 1291.

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