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Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1277;

Association between Vitamin Intake during Pregnancy and Risk of Small for Gestational Age

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Granada, 18016 Granada, Spain
Ciber de Epidemiología y Salud Pública CIBERESP, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada ibs.GRANADA, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Granada/Universidad de Granada, 18012 Granada, Spain
Department of Nursing, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen, Spain
Public Health System of Andalusia, 23400 Jaen, Spain
University of Jaén, Campus de Las Lagunillas s/n, Building B3 Office 413, 23071 Jaén, Spain
Obstetric and Gynecology Unit, Virgen de las Nieves Universitary Hospital, 18014 Granada, Spain
Division of Preventive Medicine, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
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Pregnancy increases the requirements of certain nutrients, such as vitamins, to provide nutrition for the newborn. The aim was to analyze the association between dietary intake of vitamins during pregnancy and risk of having a small for gestational age (SGA) newborn. A matched case-control study was conducted (518 cases and 518 controls of pregnant women) in Spain. Dietary vitamin intake during pregnancy was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, categorized into quintiles. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated with conditional regression logistic models. A protective association was observed between maternal dietary intake of vitamins A and D and SGA. For vitamin B3 and B6, the observed protective effect was maintained after adjusting for potential confounding factors. For vitamin B9, we found only an effect in quintiles 3 and 4 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.41–1.00; OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37–0.91). Protective effect for vitamin B12 was observed in 4th and 5th quintiles (OR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39–0.95; OR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.43–1.04). No associations were detected between dietary intake of vitamins B2, E and C intake and SGA. Our results suggest a positive association between dietary vitamin intake during pregnancy and the weight of the newborn, although more studies are necessary and there could be a ceiling effect for higher intakes of some vitamins cannot be discarded. View Full-Text
Keywords: maternal nutrition; dietary vitamins intake; pregnancy; small for gestational age maternal nutrition; dietary vitamins intake; pregnancy; small for gestational age
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Salcedo-Bellido, I.; Martínez-Galiano, J.M.; Olmedo-Requena, R.; Mozas-Moreno, J.; Bueno-Cavanillas, A.; Jimenez-Moleon, J.J.; Delgado-Rodríguez, M. Association between Vitamin Intake during Pregnancy and Risk of Small for Gestational Age. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1277.

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