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Development and Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire to Estimate Intake among Children and Adolescents in Urban Peru

Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Instituto de Investigación Nutricional, Ave La Molina 1885, La Molina, Lima 12, Peru
Socios En Salud Sucursal Peru, Ave Merino Reyna 575, Carabayllo, Lima 6, Peru
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1121;
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 1 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 14 October 2017
Tools to assess intake among children in Latin America are limited. We developed and assessed the reproducibility and validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered to children, adolescents, and their caregivers in Lima, Peru. We conducted 24-h diet recalls (DRs) and focus groups to develop a locally-tailored FFQ prototype for children aged 0–14 years. To validate the FFQ, we administered two FFQs and three DRs to children and/or their caregivers (N = 120) over six months. We examined FFQ reproducibility by quartile agreement and Pearson correlation coefficients, and validity by quartile agreement and correlation with DRs. For reproducibility, quartile agreement ranged from 60–77% with correlations highest for vitamins A and C (0.31). Age-adjusted correlations for the mean DR and the second-administered FFQ were highest in the 0–7 age group, in which the majority of caregivers completed the FFQ on behalf of the child (total fat; 0.67) and in the 8–14 age group, in which both the child and caregiver completed the FFQ together (calcium, niacin; 0.54); correlations were <0.10 for most nutrients in the 8–14 age group in which the caregiver completed the FFQ on the child’s behalf. The FFQ was reproducible and the first developed and validated to assess various nutrients in children and adolescents in Peru. View Full-Text
Keywords: food frequency questionnaire; validation; reproducibility food frequency questionnaire; validation; reproducibility
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Rodriguez, C.A.; Smith, E.R.; Villamor, E.; Zavaleta, N.; Respicio-Torres, G.; Contreras, C.; Perea, S.; Jimenez, J.; Tintaya, K.; Lecca, L.; Murray, M.B.; Franke, M.F. Development and Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire to Estimate Intake among Children and Adolescents in Urban Peru. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1121.

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