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Nutrients 2016, 8(9), 526;

Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes

Department of Health and Physical Education, Mount Royal University, 4825 Mount Royal Gate SW, Calgary, AB T3E 6K6, Canada
Department of Behavioral Health and Nutrition, University of Delaware, 026 North College Avenue, Newark, DE 19716, USA
Sport Medicine Centre, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr NW, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 3 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 26 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance)
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Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11–18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717–2437) in 11–13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291–3483) in 14–18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1–10.5); 2.4 (1.6–3.4) in males 11–13 years, 5.7 (4.5–7.9); 2.0 (1.4–2.6) in females 11–13 years, 5.3 (4.3–7.4); 2.0 (1.5–2.4) in males 14–18 y and 4.9 (4.4–6.2); 1.7 (1.3–2.0) in females 14–18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14–18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72–112), folate 89% (61–114) and calcium 84% (48–106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet analysis; youth athletes; nutrient intakes; dietary supplements; ergogenic aids diet analysis; youth athletes; nutrient intakes; dietary supplements; ergogenic aids
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Parnell, J.A.; Wiens, K.P.; Erdman, K.A. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes. Nutrients 2016, 8, 526.

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