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Xylobiose, an Alternative Sweetener, Ameliorates Diabetes-Related Metabolic Changes by Regulating Hepatic Lipogenesis and miR-122a/33a in db/db Mice

Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea
Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Eulji University, Seongnam-si, Gyunggi-do 13135, Korea
R&D Center, TS Corporation, Incheon 22300, Korea
Department of Food Science & Biotechnology, and Carbohydrate Bioproduct Research Center, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 791;
Received: 4 September 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 5 December 2016
Type 2 diabetes is a major public health concern worldwide. Xylobiose (XB) consists of two molecules of d-xylose and is a major disaccharide in xylooligosaccharides that are used as prebiotics. We hypothesized that XB could regulate diabetes-related metabolic and genetic changes via microRNA expression in db/db mice. For six weeks, C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice received 5% XB as part of the total sucrose content of their diet. XB supplementation improved glucose tolerance with reduced levels of OGTT AUC, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Furthermore, XB supplementation decreased the levels of total triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL-C. The expression levels of miR-122a and miR-33a were higher and lower in the XB group, respectively. In the liver, expressions of the lipogenic genes, including, fatty acid synthase (FAS), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1C (SREBP-1C), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), ATP-binding cassette transporter G5/G8 (ABCG5/8), cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), and sterol 12-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP8B1), as well as oxidative stress markers, including superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase, were also regulated by XB supplementation. XB supplementation inhibited the mRNA expressions levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, interleukin (IL)-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, as well as phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). These data demonstrate that XB exhibits anti-diabetic, hypolipogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects via regulation of the miR-122a/33a axis in db/db mice. View Full-Text
Keywords: xylobiose; lipogenesis; db/db mice; microRNA; inflammation xylobiose; lipogenesis; db/db mice; microRNA; inflammation
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Lim, E.; Lim, J.Y.; Kim, E.; Kim, Y.-S.; Shin, J.-H.; Seok, P.R.; Jung, S.; Yoo, S.-H.; Kim, Y. Xylobiose, an Alternative Sweetener, Ameliorates Diabetes-Related Metabolic Changes by Regulating Hepatic Lipogenesis and miR-122a/33a in db/db Mice. Nutrients 2016, 8, 791.

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