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Fish Consumption and Age-Related Macular Degeneration Incidence: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Prospective Cohort Studies

by Wei Zhu 1,†, Yan Wu 2,†, Yi-Fang Meng 1, Qian Xing 1, Jian-Jun Tao 1 and Jiong Lu 1,*
1
Department of Ophthalmology, Changshu No. 2 People’s Hospital, Changshu 215500, China
2
Department of Ophthalmology, First Hospital Affiliated to Soochow University, Suzhou 215000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Contributed equally on this work.
Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 743; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8110743
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 2 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
The association between fish consumption and risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is still unclear. The aim of the current meta-analysis and systematic review was to quantitatively evaluate findings from observational studies on fish consumption and the risk of AMD. Relevant studies were identified by searching electronic databases (Medline and EMBASE) and reviewing the reference lists of relevant articles up to August, 2016. Prospective cohort studies that reported relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the link between fish consumption and risk of AMD were included. A total of 4202 cases with 128,988 individuals from eight cohort studies were identified in the current meta-analysis. The meta-analyzed RR was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.65–0.90) when any AMD was considered. Subgroup analyses by AMD stages showed that fish consumption would reduce the risk of both early (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72–0.96) and late (RR; 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60–0.97) AMD. When stratified by the follow-up duration, fish consumption was a protective factor of AMD in both over 10 years (n = 5; RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67–0.97) and less than 10 years (n = 3; RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.97) follow-up duration. Stratified analyses by fish type demonstrated that dark meat fish (RR, 0.68, 95% CI, 0.46–0.99), especially tuna fish (RR, 0.58; 95% CI, 95% CI, 0.47–0.71) intake was associated with reduced AMD risk. Evidence of a linear association between dose of fish consumption and risk of AMD was demonstrated. The results of this meta-analysis demonstrated that fish consumption can reduce AMD risk. Advanced, well-designed, randomized clinical trials are required in order to validate the conclusions in this study. View Full-Text
Keywords: age-related macular degeneration; fish; nutrients; meta-analysis age-related macular degeneration; fish; nutrients; meta-analysis
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Zhu, W.; Wu, Y.; Meng, Y.-F.; Xing, Q.; Tao, J.-J.; Lu, J. Fish Consumption and Age-Related Macular Degeneration Incidence: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Prospective Cohort Studies. Nutrients 2016, 8, 743.

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