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Adherence to the “Mediterranean Diet” in Spain and Its Relationship with Cardiovascular Risk (DIMERICA Study)

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Departamento de Nutrición y Cátedra de Riesgo Cardiovascular, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, UCAM Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia, Campus de los Jerónimos, s/n, Guadalupe 30107, Murcia, Spain
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Grupo EHRICA (Enfermería de Hipertensión y Riesgo Cardiovascular) Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid 28041, Spain
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Instituto de Investigación y Unidad de Hipertensión, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid 28041, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8110680
Received: 18 July 2016 / Revised: 16 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 October 2016 / Published: 28 October 2016
Background: Nutritional studies focus on traditional cultural models and lifestyles in different countries. The aim of this study was to examine the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, life habits, and risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases among people living in different geographical regions in Spain. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in each region. The sampling scheme consisted of a random three-stage stratified sampling program according to geographic region, age, and gender. A total of 1732 subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to assess their nutrient intake, dietary habits, and exercise. A diet score that assesses the adherence of participants to the Mediterranean diet (range 0–10) was also applied. Results: Southeastern Spain had the lowest score for adherence to the Mediterranean diet because of the low consumption of fish and plant products. A lower adherence score to the Mediterranean diet was strongly associated with the prevalence of hypertension (p = 0.018). Conclusions: A low level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet is accompanied by a high prevalence of hypertension and, therefore, a raised cardiovascular risk in the country. The adherence score could help identify individuals at greater cardiovascular risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: adherence; cardiovascular risk factors; Mediterranean diet; Spain; score adherence; cardiovascular risk factors; Mediterranean diet; Spain; score
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Abellán Alemán, J.; Zafrilla Rentero, M.P.; Montoro-García, S.; Mulero, J.; Pérez Garrido, A.; Leal, M.; Guerrero, L.; Ramos, E.; Ruilope, L.M. Adherence to the “Mediterranean Diet” in Spain and Its Relationship with Cardiovascular Risk (DIMERICA Study). Nutrients 2016, 8, 680.

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