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Open AccessArticle

Green and Black Cardamom in a Diet-Induced Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome

Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention & Management, College of Health and Biomedicine, Victoria University, Melbourne 3021, Australia
School of Health and Wellbeing, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba 4350, Australia
Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine and the Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan
School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072, Australia
Southern Cross Plant Science, Analytical Research Laboratories, Southern Cross University, East Lismore 2480, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7691-7707;
Received: 17 July 2015 / Revised: 23 August 2015 / Accepted: 2 September 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
Both black (B) and green (G) cardamom are used as flavours during food preparation. This study investigated the responses to B and G in a diet-induced rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats were fed either a corn starch-rich diet (C) or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with increased simple sugars along with saturated and trans fats (H) for 16 weeks. H rats showed signs of metabolic syndrome leading to visceral obesity with hypertension, glucose intolerance, cardiovascular remodelling and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 3% dried B or G for the final eight weeks only. The major volatile components were the closely related terpenes, 1,8-cineole in B and α-terpinyl acetate in G. HB (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + black cardamom) rats showed marked reversal of diet-induced changes, with decreased visceral adiposity, total body fat mass, systolic blood pressure and plasma triglycerides, and structure and function of the heart and liver. In contrast, HG (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + green cardamom) rats increased visceral adiposity and total body fat mass, and increased heart and liver damage, without consistent improvement in the signs of metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that black cardamom is more effective in reversing the signs of metabolic syndrome than green cardamom. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardamom; obesity; hypertension; metabolic syndrome; rats cardamom; obesity; hypertension; metabolic syndrome; rats
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Bhaswant, M.; Poudyal, H.; Mathai, M.L.; Ward, L.C.; Mouatt, P.; Brown, L. Green and Black Cardamom in a Diet-Induced Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome. Nutrients 2015, 7, 7691-7707.

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