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Open AccessReview

Micronutrient Intake in Healthy Toddlers: A Multinational Perspective

Mannheim Institute of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Ludolf-Krehl-Strasse 7-11, Mannheim 68167, Germany
DSM Nutritional Products Limited, Wurmisweg 576, Kaiseraugst 4303, Switzerland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6938-6955;
Received: 22 June 2015 / Revised: 7 August 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 18 August 2015
Adequate nutrient intake during early childhood is of particular importance for optimal growth and future health. However, cross-national comparative research on nutrient intake of toddlers is still limited. We conducted a literature review to examine the nutrient intake in healthy toddlers from some of the world’s most populous nations currently on different stages of socioeconomic development: Brazil, Germany, Russia and the United States. We aimed to identify national surveys reporting mean intakes of the following nutrients: vitamins A, D, E, folate, calcium, iron and zinc. To calculate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake, we used a modified version of the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Overall, five studies with 6756 toddlers were eligible for inclusion in this review. In countries where data were available, a prevalence of inadequate intake higher than 20% was found for vitamins A, D, E and calcium. In Germany, folate intake also appeared to be inadequate. The results of our review indicate that inadequate micronutrient intake in toddlers might be a global challenge affecting also affluent countries. However, to explore the full scope of this important public health issue joint efforts of researchers worldwide are needed to combine existing data and fill in data gaps. View Full-Text
Keywords: child; preschool; nutrition assessment; nutrient intake; nutritional status; micronutrients child; preschool; nutrition assessment; nutrient intake; nutritional status; micronutrients
MDPI and ACS Style

Hilger, J.; Goerig, T.; Weber, P.; Hoeft, B.; Eggersdorfer, M.; Carvalho, N.C.; Goldberger, U.; Hoffmann, K. Micronutrient Intake in Healthy Toddlers: A Multinational Perspective. Nutrients 2015, 7, 6938-6955.

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