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Effects of a Low Dose of Fish Oil on Inflammatory Markers of Brazilian HIV-Infected Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy: A Randomized, Parallel, Placebo-Controlled Trial

1
School of Applied Sciences, University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, 13484-350, Brazil
2
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, 01246-904, Brazil
3
Laboratory of Immunology, Adolfo Lutz Institute, Sao Paulo, 13036-225, Brazil
4
University College London, London WC1H 0EG, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Deceased.
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6520-6528; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085294
Received: 21 May 2015 / Revised: 25 July 2015 / Accepted: 28 July 2015 / Published: 5 August 2015
Background: The benefits of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected subjects have been limited by an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of a low dose of marine omega-3 fatty acids on inflammatory marker concentrations in HIV-infected subjects under antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: This was a randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled trial that investigated the effects of 3 g fish oil/day (540 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid—EPA plus 360 mg of docosahexaenoic acid—DHA) or 3 g soy oil/day (placebo) for 24 weeks in 83 male and non-pregnant female HIV-infected adults on ART. Results: There were no differences between groups for the measures at baseline. Multilevel analyses revealed no statistically significant relationship between the longitudinal changes in high sensitivity-C reactive protein (hs-CRP) (Wald Chi2 = 0.17, p = 0.918), fibrinogen (Wald Chi2 = 3.82, p = 0.148), and factor VIII (Wald Chi2 = 5.25, p = 0.073) with fish oil. No significant changes in interleukin-6 (IL6), interleukin-1 beta (IL1-beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) serum concentrations were observed with fish oil supplements for 12 weeks. Conclusions: Compared to placebo, a low dose of 900 mg omega-3 fatty acids (EPA plus DHA) in fish oil capsules did not change hs-CRP, fibrinogen, factor VIII, IL6, IL1-beta and TNF-alpha serum concentrations in HIV-infected subjects on ART. Further investigations should consider the assessment of more sensitive inflammatory markers or higher doses to evaluate the effects of marine omega-3 fatty acids in this population. Registered at the Nederlands Trial Register, Identifier no. NTR1798. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV infection; AIDS; metabolic syndrome; inflammation; C reactive protein; fibrinogen; factor VIII; interleukin 6; interleukin 1-beta; tumor necrosis factor-alpha HIV infection; AIDS; metabolic syndrome; inflammation; C reactive protein; fibrinogen; factor VIII; interleukin 6; interleukin 1-beta; tumor necrosis factor-alpha
MDPI and ACS Style

Oliveira, J.M.; Rondó, P.H.C.; Lima, L.R.A.V.; Fortuna, E.S.; Yudkin, J.S. Effects of a Low Dose of Fish Oil on Inflammatory Markers of Brazilian HIV-Infected Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy: A Randomized, Parallel, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2015, 7, 6520-6528.

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