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Open AccessArticle

Hydrolysis of the Rutinose-Conjugates Flavonoids Rutin and Hesperidin by the Gut Microbiota and Bifidobacteria

Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Campi 183, 41125 Modena, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2015, 7(4), 2788-2800;
Received: 26 February 2015 / Revised: 1 April 2015 / Accepted: 7 April 2015 / Published: 14 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiome and Human Health)
Flavonols and flavanones are polyphenols exerting many healthy biological activities. They are often glycosylated by rutinose, which hampers absorption in the small intestine. Therefore they require the gut microbiota to release the aglycone and enable colonic absorption. The role of the gut microbiota and bifidobacteria in the release of the aglycones from two major rutinosides, hesperidin and rutin, was investigated. In bioconversion experiments, the microbiota removed rutinose from both rutin and hesperidin, even though complete hydrolysis was not obtained. To investigate whether bifidobacteria can participate to the hydrolysis of rutinosides, 33 strains were screened. Rutin was resistant to hydrolysis by all the strains. Among six tested species, mostly Bifidobacterium catenulatum and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenultum were able to hydrolyze hesperidin, by means of a cell-associated activity. This result is in agreement with the presence of a putative α-l-rhamnosidase in the genome of B. pseudocatenulatum, while most of the available genome sequences of bifidobacteria aside from this species do not bear this sequence. Even though B. pseudocatenulatum may contribute to the release of the aglycone from certain rutinose-conjugated polyphenols, such as hesperidin, it remains to be clarified whether this species may exert a role in affecting the bioavailability of the rutinoside in vivo. View Full-Text
Keywords: bifidobacterium; hesperidin; hesperetin; rutin; quercetin; rutinosides; polyphenols bifidobacterium; hesperidin; hesperetin; rutin; quercetin; rutinosides; polyphenols
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Amaretti, A.; Raimondi, S.; Leonardi, A.; Quartieri, A.; Rossi, M. Hydrolysis of the Rutinose-Conjugates Flavonoids Rutin and Hesperidin by the Gut Microbiota and Bifidobacteria. Nutrients 2015, 7, 2788-2800.

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