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Considering Maternal Dietary Modulators for Epigenetic Regulation and Programming of the Fetal Epigenome

1
Polytechnic Institute LaSalle Beauvais, Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, EGEAL UP:2012.10.101, F-60026 Beauvais Cedex, France
2
Division of Biochemical Toxicology, Food and Drug Administration National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2015, 7(4), 2748-2770; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7042748
Received: 31 December 2014 / Revised: 16 February 2015 / Accepted: 19 March 2015 / Published: 14 April 2015
Fetal life is characterized by a tremendous plasticity and ability to respond to various environmental and lifestyle factors, including maternal nutrition. Identification of the role of dietary factors that can modulate and reshape the cellular epigenome during development, including methyl group donors (e.g., folate, choline) and bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenols) is of great importance; however, there is insufficient knowledge of a particular effect of each type of modulator and/or their combination on fetal life. To enhance the quality and safety of food products for proper fetal health and disease prevention in later life, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of dietary epigenetic modulators during the critical prenatal period is necessary. This review focuses on the influence of maternal dietary components on DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNAs, and summarizes current knowledge of the effect and importance of dietary components on epigenetic mechanisms that control the proper expression of genetic information. Evidence reveals that some components in the maternal diet can directly or indirectly affect epigenetic mechanisms. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of how early-life nutritional environment affects the epigenome during development is of great importance for the successful prevention of adult chronic diseases through optimal maternal nutrition. View Full-Text
Keywords: maternal diet; epigenetics; programming; DNA methylation; histone; microRNAs maternal diet; epigenetics; programming; DNA methylation; histone; microRNAs
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Chango, A.; Pogribny, I.P. Considering Maternal Dietary Modulators for Epigenetic Regulation and Programming of the Fetal Epigenome. Nutrients 2015, 7, 2748-2770.

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