Next Article in Journal
Change in Metabolic Profile after 1-Year Nutritional-Behavioral Intervention in Obese Children
Previous Article in Journal
Anti-Diabetic Effects of Madecassic Acid and Rotundic Acid
Article Menu

Export Article

Letter published on 18 February 2016, see Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 97.

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10076-10088;

Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, 700 W. State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
Nutrition Impact, LLC, 9725 D Drive North, Battle Creek, MI 49014, USA
Food and Nutrition Database Research, Inc., 1801 Shadywood Lane, Okemos, MI 48864, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 20 September 2015 / Revised: 2 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
Full-Text   |   PDF [198 KB, uploaded 2 December 2015]


This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2–18 years old (n = 10,298) of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level) least square means (p < 0.05/3 race/ethnic groups). All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children. View Full-Text
Keywords: processed food; dietary intake; nutrient intake; children; race; ethnicity processed food; dietary intake; nutrient intake; children; race; ethnicity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Eicher-Miller, H.A.; Fulgoni, V.L.; Keast, D.R. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity. Nutrients 2015, 7, 10076-10088.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top