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Open AccessArticle

Dietary Intake according to Gender and Education: A Twenty-Year Trend in a Swiss Adult Population

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne 1010, Switzerland
2
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne 1011, Switzerland
3
Unit of Population Epidemiology, Division of Primary Care Medicine, Department of Community Medicine, Primary Care and Emergency Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva 1205, Switzerland
4
Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2015, 7(11), 9558-9572; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7115481
Received: 10 August 2015 / Revised: 21 September 2015 / Accepted: 9 November 2015 / Published: 18 November 2015
We assessed trends in dietary intake according to gender and education using repeated cross-sectional, population-based surveys conducted between 1993 and 2012 in Geneva, Switzerland (17,263 participants, 52.0 ± 10.6 years, 48% male). In 1993–1999, higher educated men had higher monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), carotene and vitamin D intakes than lower educated men, and the differences decreased in 2006–2012. In 1993–1999, higher educated women had higher fiber, iron, carotene, vitamin D and alcohol intakes than lower educated women, and the differences decreased in 2006–2012. Total energy, polyunsaturated fatty acids, retinol and alcohol intakes decreased, while mono/disaccharides, MUFA and carotene intake increased in both genders. Lower educated men had stronger decreases in saturated fatty acid (SFA) and calcium intakes than higher educated men: multivariate-adjusted slope and 95% confidence interval −0.11 (−0.15; −0.06) vs. −0.03 (−0.08; 0.02) g/day/year for SFA and −5.2 (−7.8; −2.7) vs. −1.03 (−3.8; 1.8) mg/day/year for calcium, p for interaction <0.05. Higher educated women had a greater decrease in iron intake than lower educated women: −0.03 (−0.04; −0.02) vs. −0.01 (−0.02; 0.00) mg/day/year, p for interaction = 0.002. We conclude that, in Switzerland, dietary intake evolved similarly between 1993 and 2012 in both educational groups. Educational differences present in 1993 persisted in 2012. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutrients; trends; epidemiology; public health; adult; educational level; gender; population-based study; Switzerland nutrients; trends; epidemiology; public health; adult; educational level; gender; population-based study; Switzerland
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Marques-Vidal, P.; Rousi, E.; Paccaud, F.; Gaspoz, J.-M.; Theler, J.-M.; Bochud, M.; Stringhini, S.; Guessous, I. Dietary Intake according to Gender and Education: A Twenty-Year Trend in a Swiss Adult Population. Nutrients 2015, 7, 9558-9572.

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