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Vitamin D Deficiency Increases the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

1
Department of Labor Hygiene and Environmental Health, School of Public Health of Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, China
2
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8366-8375; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105398
Received: 8 September 2015 / Revised: 20 September 2015 / Accepted: 23 September 2015 / Published: 1 October 2015
The results investigating the relationship between vitamin D levels and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are inconsistent. Thus, we focused on evaluating the association of vitamin D deficiency with GDM by conducting a meta-analysis of observed studies. A systematic literature search was conducted via PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane library to identify eligible studies before August 2015. The meta-analysis of 20 studies including 9209 participants showed that women with vitamin D deficiency experienced a significantly increased risk for developing GDM (odds ratio (OR) = 1.53; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.33, 1.75) with a little heterogeneity (I2 = 16.20%, p = 0.252). A noteworthy decrease of 4.93 nmol/L (95% CI, −6.73, −3.14) in serum 25(OH)D was demonstrated in the participants with GDM, and moderate heterogeneity was observed (I2 = 61.40%, p = 0.001). Subgroup analysis with study design showed that there were obvious heterogeneities in nested case–control studies (I2 > 52.5%, p < 0.07). Sensitivity analysis showed that exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the overall combined effect. In summary, the evidence from this meta-analysis indicates a consistent association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of GDM. However, well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to elicit the clear effect of vitamin D supplementation on prevention of GDM. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D deficiency; gestational diabetes mellitus; pregnancy; meta-analysis vitamin D deficiency; gestational diabetes mellitus; pregnancy; meta-analysis
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Zhang, M.-X.; Pan, G.-T.; Guo, J.-F.; Li, B.-Y.; Qin, L.-Q.; Zhang, Z.-L. Vitamin D Deficiency Increases the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Nutrients 2015, 7, 8366-8375.

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